S. aureus can cause a range of illnesses, from minor skin infections, such as pimples, impetigo, boils (furuncles), cellulitis folliculitis, carbuncles, scalded skin syndrome, and abscesses, to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome (TSS), bacteremia, and sepsis.

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Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and is frequently found in the human respiratory tract and on the skin. Although S. aureus is not always pathogenic, it is a common cause of skin infections (e.g. boils), respiratory disease (e.g. sinusitis), and food poisoning. Disease-associated strains often promote infections by producing potent protein toxins, and expressing cell-surface proteins that bind and inactivate antibodies. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant forms of pathogenic S. aureus (e.g. MRSA) is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine.

Staphylococcus was first identified in 1880 in Aberdeen, United Kingdom, by the surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston in pus from a surgical abscess in a knee joint. This name was later appended to Staphylococcus aureus by Rosenbach who was credited by the official system of nomenclature at the time.

It is estimated that 20% of the human population are long-term carriers of S. aureus which can be found as part of the normal skin flora and in anterior nares of the nasal passages. S. aureus is the most common species of staphylococcus to cause Staph infections and is a successful pathogen due to a combination of nasal carriage and bacterial immuno-evasive strategies.

S. aureus can cause a range of illnesses, from minor skin infections, such as pimples, impetigo, boils (furuncles), cellulitis folliculitis, carbuncles, scalded skin syndrome, and abscesses, to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome (TSS), bacteremia, and sepsis. Its incidence ranges from skin, soft tissue, respiratory, bone, joint, endovascular to wound infections. It is still one of the five most common causes of nosocomial infections and is often the cause of postsurgical wound infections. Each year, some 500,000 patients in American hospitals contract a staphylococcal infection.

Role in disease

S. aureus is responsible for many infections but it may also occur as a commensal. The presence of S. aureus does not always indicate infection. S. aureus can survive from hours to weeks, or even months, on dry environmental surfaces, depending on strain.

S. aureus can infect tissues when the skin or mucosal barriers have been breached. This can lead to many different types of infections including furuncles and carbuncles (a collection of furuncles).

S. aureus infections can spread through contact with pus from an infected wound, skin-to-skin contact with an infected person by producing hyaluronidase that destroys tissues, and contact with objects such as towels, sheets, clothing, or athletic equipment used by an infected person. Deeply penetrating S. aureus infections can be severe. Prosthetic joints put a person at particular risk of septic arthritis, and staphylococcal endocarditis (infection of the heart valves) and pneumonia. Strains of S. aureus can host phages, such as Φ-PVL (produces Panton-Valentine leukocidin), that increase virulence.

Atopic dermatitis

S. aureus is extremely prevalent in atopic dermatitis patients. It is mostly found in fertile, active places, including the armpits, hair, and scalp. Large pimples that appear in those areas may exacerbate the infection if lacerated. This can lead to staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). A severe form of this, Ritter's disease, can be observed in neonates.


Animal infections

S. aureus can survive on dogs, cats, and horses, and can cause bumblefoot in chickens. Some believe health-care workers' dogs should be considered a significant source of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus, especially in times of outbreak. S. aureus is one of the causal agents of mastitis in dairy cows. Its large polysaccharide capsule protects the organism from recognition by the cow's immune defenses.

Source:  wikipedia.org


 
Salmonella infections are zoonotic and can be transferred between humans and nonhuman animals

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Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria with diameters around 0.8 to 1.5 µm, lengths from 2 to 5 µm, and flagella that grade in all directions (i.e., peritrichous). They are chemoorganotrophs, obtaining their energy from oxidation and reduction reactions using organic sources, and are facultative anaerobes. There are only two species of Salmonella; Salmonella bongori and Salmonella enterica of which there are innumerable subspecies. Most subspecies produce hydrogen sulfide, which can readily be detected by growing them on media containing ferrous sulfate, such as TSI. Most isolates exist in two phases: a motile phase I and a nonmotile phase II. Cultures that are nonmotile upon primary culture may be switched to the motile phase using a Cragie tube.

Salmonella is closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in cold- and warm-blooded animals (including humans), and in the environment. They cause illnesses such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and foodborne illness.

Salmonella as disease-causing agents

Salmonella infections are zoonotic and can be transferred between humans and nonhuman animals. Many infections are due to ingestion of contaminated food. For example, recent FDA studies link Guatemalan cantaloupes with Salmonella panama. In speaking of other salmonella serotypes, enteritis Salmonella and Salmonella typhoid/paratyphoid Salmonella, the latter—because of a special virulence factor and a capsule protein (virulence antigen)—can cause serious illness, such as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi. Salmonella typhi is adapted to humans and does not occur in other animals.

Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogens that enter cells via macropinosomes.

Enteritis salmonellosis or food poisoning Salmonella

This is a group consisting of potentially every other serotype (over a thousand) of the Salmonella bacteria, most of which have never been found in humans. These are encountered in various Salmonella species, most having never been linked to a specific host, but can also infect humans. It is therefore a zoonotic disease.

The organism enters through the digestive tract and must be ingested in large numbers to cause disease in healthy adults. Gastric acidity is responsible for the destruction of the majority of ingested bacteria. Bacterial colonies may become trapped in mucus produced in the oesophagus.

Salmonellosis is a disease caused by raw or undercooked food. Infection usually occurs when a person ingests foods that contain a high concentration of the bacteria, similar to a culture medium. In otherwise healthy adults, the symptoms are usually mild. Normally, no sepsis occurs, but it can occur exceptionally as a complication in elderly or weakened patients (e.g., those with Hodgkin's disease).

However, infants and young children are much more susceptible to infection, easily achieved by ingesting a small number of bacteria. In infants, contamination through inhalation of bacteria-laden dust is possible. After a short incubation period of a few hours to one day, the bacteria multiply in the intestinal lumen, causing an intestinal inflammation with diarrhea that is often mucopurulent (containing mucus or pus) and bloody. In infants, dehydration can cause a state of severe toxicosis. Extraintestinal localizations are possible, especially Salmonella meningitis in children, osteitis, etc.

Enteritis Salmonella (e.g., Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis) can cause diarrhea, which usually does not require antibiotic treatment. However, in people at risk such as infants, small children, the elderly, Salmonella infections can become very serious, leading to complications. If these are not treated, HIV patients and those with suppressed immunity can become seriously ill. Children with sickle cell anaemia who are infected with Salmonella may develop osteomyelitis. Treatment of osteomyelitis, in this case, will be to use fluoroquinolones (Ciproflaxacin, Levofloxacin, etc. and Nalidixic acid).

Salmonella bacteria can survive for weeks outside a living body, and they are not destroyed by freezing. Ultraviolet radiation and heat accelerate their demise; they perish after being heated to 55 °C (131 °F) for 90 min, or to 60 °C (140 °F) for 12 min. To protect against Salmonella infection, heating food for at least ten minutes at 75 °C (167 °F) is recommended, so the centre of the food reaches this temperature.

Most people with salmonellosis develop diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection. In most cases, the illness lasts four to seven days, and most people recover without treatment. In some cases, though, the diarrhea may be so severe, the patient becomes dangerously dehydrated and must be taken to a hospital. At the hospital, the patient may receive intravenous fluids to treat the dehydration, and may be given medications to provide symptomatic relief, such as fever reduction. In severe cases, the Salmonella infection may spread from the intestines to the blood stream, and then to other body sites, and can cause death, unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics. The elderly, infants, and those with impaired immune systems are more likely to develop severe illness.

An infectious process can only begin after living salmonellae (not only their toxins) reach the gastrointestinal tract. Some of the microorganisms are killed in the stomach, while the surviving salmonellae enter the small intestine and multiply in tissues (localized form). By the end of the incubation period, the macro-organisms are poisoned by endotoxins released from the dead salmonellae. The local response to the endotoxins is enteritis and gastrointestinal disorder. In the generalized form of the disease, salmonellae pass through the lymphatic system of the intestine into the blood of the patients (typhoid form) and are carried to various organs (liver, spleen, kidneys) to form secondary foci (septic form). Endotoxins first act on the vascular and nervous apparatus, manifested by increased permeability and decreased tone of the vessels, upset thermal regulation, vomiting and diarrhea. In severe forms of the disease, enough liquid and electrolytes are lost to upset the water-salt metabolism, to decrease the circulating blood volume and arterial pressure, and to cause hypovolemic shock. Septic shock may develop. Shock of mixed character (with signs of both hypovolemic and septic shock) are more common in severe salmonellosis. Oliguria and azotemia develop in severe cases as a result of renal involvement due to hypoxia and toxemia.

A small number of people afflicted with salmonellosis experience reactive arthritis, which can last months or years and can lead to chronic arthritis.

In Germany, food poisoning infections must be reported. Between 1990 and 2005, the number of officially recorded cases decreased from approximately 200,000 to approximately 50,000 cases. In the USA, about 40,000 cases of Salmonella infection are reported each year. According to the World Health Organization, over 16 million people worldwide are infected with typhoid fever each year, with 500,000 to 600,000 fatal cases.

The AvrA toxin injected by the type three secretion system of Salmonella Typhimurium works to inhibit the innate immune system by virtue of its serine/threonine acetyltransferase activity, and requires binding to eukaryotic target cell phytic acid (IP6). This leaves the host more susceptible to infection. In a 2011 paper, Yale University School of Medicine researchers described in detail how Salmonella is able to make these proteins line up in just the right sequence to invade host cells. "These mechanisms present us with novel targets that might form the basis for the development of an entirely new class of antimicrobials," said Professor Dr. Jorge Galan, senior author of the paper and the Lucille P. Markey Professor of Microbial Pathogenesis and chair of the Section of Microbial Pathogenesis at Yale. In the new National Institutes of Health-funded study, Galan and colleagues identify what they call a bacterial sorting platform, which attracts needed proteins and lines them up in a specific order. If the proteins do not line up properly, Salmonella, as well as many other bacterial pathogens, cannot "inject" them into host cells to commandeer host cell functions, the lab has found. Understanding how this machine works raises the possibility of new therapies that disable this protein delivery machine, thwarting the ability of the bacterium to become pathogenic. The process would not kill the bacteria as most antibiotics do, but would cripple its ability to do harm. In theory, this means bacteria such as Salmonella might not develop resistance to new therapies as quickly as they usually do to conventional antibiotics.

Source: wikipedia.org


 
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Escherichia coli (commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in humans, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination. The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and by preventing the establishment of pathogenic bacteria within the intestine.

E. coli and related bacteria constitute about 0.1% of gut flora, and fecal–oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the bacterium cause disease. Cells are able to survive outside the body for a limited amount of time, which makes them ideal indicator organisms to test environmental samples for fecal contamination. There is, however, a growing body of research that has examined environmentally persistent E. coli which can survive for extended periods outside of the host.

The bacterium can be grown easily and inexpensively in a laboratory setting, and has been intensively investigated for over 60 years. E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA.

Source: wikipedia.org


 
Many toxic chemicals can be found right in your home.
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Chemicals play a major role in our every day lives. They are part of what we eat, where we work, and how we live. Despite their prevalence in our lives, many chemicals are hazardous, or toxic. Toxic chemicals can be found in our soil, water, air, and bodies. This contamination has seriously effected the health of humans and wildlife everywhere.

Children are often more vulnerable than adults to the harmful effects of chemical pollutants because they are growing and developing rapidly. In addition, children’s behavior, including increased hand to mouth activity, a tendency to crawl and play in spaces that could be contaminated, and a lack of awareness about proper safety and sanitary habits, all put children at a higher risk. In some cases, childhood exposure to toxins can cause serious health damage to an individual later on in life.

Our built environments, including schools, residential areas, and places of work, can all be sites of hazardous chemical contamination. In fact, many toxic chemicals can be found right in your home.

  • Household products such as detergent, floor and furniture polish, paints, and various cleaning products for glass, wood, metal, ovens, toilets, and drains may contain hazardous chemicals such as ammonia, sulfuric and phosphoric acids, lye, chlorine, formaldehyde, and phenol. Air fresheners can also contain chemicals that are harmful to health. Art supplies, such as markers, paint, and glue, may also contain toxic materials. When not properly handled, these products can make the home environment a dangerous place, especially for kids.

  • Home furnishings, such as carpets, curtains, wall decorations, and some furniture, may be treated with chemicals and are potentially dangerous. It is important to note that a few days after installation, new carpets emit volatile organic compounds, which are chemicals associated with carpet manufacturing that can be harmful to humans and the environment. Gas and wood stoves and kerosene heaters may also release dangerous chemicals.

  • Building materials such as particle board, insulation, asbestos, and treated wood (used for decks and outdoor furniture), can also pose health threats. Some play sets and toys, as well as outdoor swing sets and play grounds, may also be treated with toxic chemicals, made from toxic plastics, or include hazardous materials. The more time that children spend playing in such an environment, the higher their exposure to toxic chemicals, and the greater a risk to their health.

Various health effects can result from toxic chemical exposure, including allergic reactions, asthma, migraines, dizziness, nausea, eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation, various forms of cancer, and even death. The health effects resulting from exposure depends upon many factors, including how toxic the chemical is and the degree of exposure.

You can help protect children from the hazards of toxic chemicals at home and in school.


Make an effort to use nontoxic products. Use natural products for cleaning agents such as baking soda, soda ash, vinegar, and cream of tarter. A variety of nontoxic products can be found in health food stores and some supermarkets. Make sure to check labels carefully and keep all hazardous products well-marked and away from children. Check to see if various school and household appliances, toys, and learning materials are hazardous. Keep living, playing, and learning areas, especially the kitchen and bathroom, clean and safe.

Educate yourself! Learn more about toxic chemicals by visiting informational websites. Become active with groups working to promote policies designed to protect children from toxic chemicals.

Reduce your exposure to toxics around your home. Our alternative to everyday household products: GreenWay Plant-extract All-Purpose Cleaner
Toxic Chemical Information Resources
  • www.epa.gov/epahome/topics.html - website for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which can be searched for a variety of information about toxic chemicals and pollutants and US regulations regarding such materials
  • www.epa.gov/kidshometour - part of EPA’s website geared toward children information and a tour of toxic chemicals in the home
  • www.atsdr.org - website for the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, a government agency that provides information about hazardous substances, the health effects of hazardous substances, and relevant news updates
  • www.nrdc.org/health/default.asp - website for the Natural Resources Defense Council which contains a variety of information including an article about toxic chemicals and health
  • www.childproofing.org - the website for Childproofing our Communities Campaign, a locally based, grassroots effort coordinated by the Center for Health, Environment, and Justice (CHEJ), a national environmental organization dedicated to making the indoor and outdoor environment more safe for children. This site also provides many useful links to other organizations.
  • www.igc.org/psr/ihw.htm - a document by Physicians for Social Responsibility about various toxic threats to child development and information linking developmental disorders and toxic chemicals
  • www.greenhome.com/learn - an on line department store and information resource that sells environmentally friendly products from home appliances to apparel. It also contains various informational articles, including one on how to make non-toxic cleaners for your home which can be found at www.greenhome.com/learn/make/cleaners.shtml (Note: these products have not been officially tested by CEHN, nor are they officially endorsed by the Network)
  • www.eohsi.rutgers.edu/rc - the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute provides educational material about toxics, including ToxRAP material for classroom lessons
  • www.cehn.org - website for the Children’s Environmental Health Network, a non-profit organization that works to protect children from environmental hazards and to promote a healthy environment, with a useful resource guide to other organizations and links to other resources.
Source: CEHN


 
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Nature has provided the amazing herbal remedies that can increase the power of your brain. The use of herbs is the oldest form of medical science in the world, and it is still used abundantly in naturopathic practices today.

Myriad of scientific studies concluded the efficacy of Bacopa Monnieri, Ginkgo Biloba, Gotu Kola, Wheatgrass and Barleygrass – the powerful combination of IntelliFood Maxx Brain Booster’s components - to boost brain power and cognitive function and nourishment for the body.



BACOPA MONNIERI
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Bacopa Monnieri, also called Brahmi, is a creeper herb found along the periphery of marshes and ponds throughout India. This herb has been used as a traditional remedy for over 3000 years in India to enhance memory and learning in the Indian system of Ayurvedic medicine.

Research authority has shown that the Bacopa Monnieri rejuvenates and revitalizes damaged or worn-out brain cells, particularly in the brain center known as the “hippocampus” which is concerned with memory and learning. It facilitates memory acquisition, consolidation, retention as well as the recall of learned tasks. Hippocampus is a brain area located just above the ear and it is the area in the brain associated with memory formation.

Bacopa Monnieri contains bacosides, which are chemical compounds that can repair damaged neurons,thus improving nerve impulse transmission and stimulates nerves activity.


Bacopa Monnieri is also helpful in combating stress,improving reflexes and increasing mental capacity.

GINKGO BILOBA
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Ginkgo Biloba - This natural herb increases circulation throughout the body by thinning the blood, and thereby increases the supply of oxygen to the brain. It is also a powerful antioxidant,and has been shown to increase several elements of brain fitness, including better memory retrieval and clearer focus.

Ginkgo Biloba, is a unique species of tree with no close living relatives. The ginkgo is a living fossil, recognizably similar to fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China, the tree is widely cultivated and was introduced early to human history. It has various uses in traditional medicine and as a source of food.

Ginkgo Biloba is one of the world’s oldest surviving trees. Its longevity is due to its resistance to disease and pollution, adaptability and unique biochemical properties.

Ginkgo Biloba is the tree of life. At the end of World War II on August 6, 1945 an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima by the Americans. Ginkgo trees were only the survivor and are still alive today.

GOTU KOLA
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Gotu Kola (Centella Asiatica) - is a nourishing food and a brain boost - revitalizing herb to the body, brain and nerves - it assists memory, concentration, intelligence,improves reflexes and energy levels, and is said to help balance the left and right hemispheres of the brain.

Gotu Kola is higher in the B-complex vitamin group than any other plant previously examined. This again may account for its effects on the brain. It is especially high in thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), and pyridoxin (B6). B complex is necessary in providing energy for the body, by converting carbohydrates into glucose, a usable form of sugar for the body to burn. The B complex is responsible for the normal functioning of the nervous system as well. A healthy nervous system allows for a better functioning and organized brain.

Gotu Kola also reduces anxiety in adults and children that enhances focus and concentration in logical memory, and learning.

People have reported that with using the herb regularly they have been able to correct high blood pressure and cholesterol. Many people have experienced relief from painful and crippling arthritis and rheumatism.

Numerous research projects in the western world studied this herb after the remarkable life of Professor Li Chung Yun, who died at the age of 256 years in 1933. He was born in 1677 and in 1933 the New York Times announced the death of this remarkable Oriental, whose life span had reached over two and half centuries. The Chinese Government officially recorded his age. The professor ate Gotu Kola daily. At 200 years of age he was still lecturing at a Chinese university and was said to look like a man of 50 years, he stood straight and had his own natural teeth and full head of hair.

In the Philippines,the leaves are either consumed raw in salads or as a tea for tonic and stimulant benefits to the body. The leaves have been employed medicinally inthe French West Indies and Brazil to cure uterine cancer, leprosy and elephantiasis. In the People’s Republic of China, Gotu Kola is used for fevers,common cold influenza, sore throat and liver ailments such as cirrhosis and jaundice.

WHEATGRASS
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Wheatgrass is the ultimate energizer for body and brain.

Wheatgrass is high in oxygen like all green plants that contain chlorophyll. The important nutritional aspect of chlorophyll is its remarkable similarity to hemoglobin, the compound that carries oxygen in the blood. The brain and all body tissues function at an optimal level in a highly oxygenated environment.

Oxygen is vital to body processes: it stimulates digestion (the oxidation of food), promotes clearer thinking (the brain utilizes 25% of the body’s oxygen supply), and protects the blood against anaerobic bacteria. Cancer cells cannot exist in the presence of oxygen.

Wheatgrass is well known as the super food of the history because of its complete nutritional profile from vitamins to minerals, from Chlorophyll to powerful live enzymes,from anti-oxidant to phytonutrients and most of all it is the most alkaline-based food, all this in the balance form.

Some of the superior qualities of wheatgrass include the following:
  • Increases red blood-cell count and lowers blood pressure. It cleanses the blood, organs and gastrointestinal tract of debris. Wheatgrass also stimulates metabolism and the body’s enzyme systems by enriching the blood. It also aids in reducing blood pressure by dilating the blood pathways throughout the body.
  • Itis a powerful detoxifier, and liver and blood protector. The enzymes and amino acids found in wheatgrass can protect us from carcinogens like no other food or medicine. It strengthens our cells,detoxifies the liver and bloodstream, and chemically neutralizes environmental pollutants.
  • Restores alkalinity to the blood. The wheatgrass’ abundance of alkaline minerals helps reduce over-acidity in the blood. It can be used torelieve many internal pains, and has been used successfully to treat peptic ulcers, ulcerative colitis, constipation, diarrhea, and other complaints of the gastrointestinal tract.

BARLEYGRASS
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Barleygrass was one of the first grains to be cultivated, as early as 7000 BC. The use of barley for food and medicinal purposes goes back to the distant past.Chlorophyll bursting barley grass is a green cereal grass that is an excellent nutritional source for both humans and animals. Young barley leaves contain all the vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and detoxifying compounds, proteins and enzymes that keep the human body healthy.

Barleygrass is recognized as the most nutritious of all plant foods, a total health food that boosts the proper functioning of organs and the immune system since it contains essential vitamins, minerals, amino acids, enzymes plus chlorophyll, phytonutrients, and phytochemicals.

Barleygrass contains a substance called P4D1; it not only has a strong anti-inflammatory action, but has also been shown to actually repair the DNA in the body's cells. P4D1 aids in the prevention of carcinogenesis, aging, and cell death.

Barleygrass is the best source of the nutrients that the body needs for growth, repair and well-being.


 

Pharmaceuticals and medical errors are now a leading cause of death. Painkillers are the leading cause of accidental death.


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We don’t have to live in a medicated world, but we certainly choose to. The crux of the matter is that we refuse to proactively think about prevention because we reactively commit to treating the symptoms of underlying health problems. This is the allopathic model. We want the quick fix so we can continue our poor lifestyle and dietary habits. It doesn’t have to be this way, but it is. We can blame doctors, the medical institutions and healthcare systems all we want, but self-responsibility is our only recourse if we are ever to surface from this mess. There are no excuses–if you’re taking one of these drugs, consult with a Natural Health Practitioner this week about phasing out your medication and phasing in these powerful natural foods and remedies.

Of the over 4 billion prescriptions written every year, the United States and Canada make up more than 80% of the world’s prescription opioids (psychoactive medications). Between 1997 and 2012 prescription opioids increased in dosage by almost 500%. Pharmaceuticals and medical errors are now a leading cause of death. Painkillers are the leading cause of accidental death.

In the last 15 years of life, people are experiencing more pain for longer periods than at any point on our historical record. If you think life expectancy has increased to the benefit of mankind, you’re not looking at the numbers.

78% of U.S. prescriptions written in 2010 were for generic drugs (both unbranded and those still sold under a brand name). The most prescribed drugs aren’t always the best selling drugs, there’s a difference.

Prescriptions for pain, cholesterol reduction, high blood pressure, hypothyroidism, antacids, antipsychotics, diabetes and antibiotics make up 100% of the most prescribed drugs.


Make a commitment to yourself right now and start incorporating some of these amazing foods into your diet with no consequence of side effects. When you accept this, you will get off prescription medications for good.

Check out the top 7 most prescribed drugs and the best natural remedies to treat and prevent disease:


1. HYDROCODONE (Acetaminophen/Vicodin/Oxycontin)

Use: For Pain

Currently the single most prescribed drug in the world. More and more doctors are getting huge payouts from pharmaceutical companies to promote these hydrocodone, especially generic drugs. They make up more than 20% of the top prescribed medications.

Dr. Thomas Frieden, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), told Fox News that doctors are handing out narcotics like candy. Some doctors are giving patients prescriptions for narcotics for even minor injuries.

How it Works:
It is an orally psychoactive compound that works as a narcotic and analgesic. It is biotransformed by the liver into several metabolites. It is highly dependent on metabolism by the Cytochrome P450 pathway.

Consequences:
Respiratory depression; bradycardia; coma; seizures; cardiac arrest; liver damage; and death. Inherited genes such as the Cytochrome P450 affects metabolic pathways–some cannot process it at all, whereas a smaller percentage can get even more strength from it than usual.

Natural Foods:
Ginger, turmeric, berries, cayenne pepper, celery/celery seeds, cherries, dark green veggies, walnuts.

See: Natural Healing Remedies: 10 Foods That Fight Inflammation And Pain

2. STATINS (Generic versions of Lipitor/Zocor/Crestor)


Use: Reduction of LDL Cholesterol

Approximately 15% of the top prescribed medications are generic statins. A study published in January 2012 in the Archives of Internal Medicine linked statins to 48 percent increased risk for type-2 diabetes.

The are NO scientific studies ever documented which have proved through causation that lowering LDL cholesterol prevents disease. The obsessed culture of lowering cholesterol may actually be causing cancer.

How it Works:
Statins artificially lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting a critical enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol in the liver.

Consequences:
Inflammation and pathological breakdown of muscle, acute kidney failure, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, interference with sex hormones and death.

Natural Foods:
Nuts, spinach, apples, turmeric, cranberries, tomatoes, green tea, fatty fish, beans, alfalfa herb, capsicum fruit, garlic, psyllium, fenugreek seeds, butcher’s broom, licorice root, hawthorn berry.

See:
- New Data Shows Lycopene Reduces Heart Disease Up To 26 Percent
- Two Apples a Day More Effective At Reducing Heart Disease Than Statin Medications
- Top 5 Foods and Herbs To Control Cholesterol
- World Renown Heart Surgeon Speaks Out On What Really Causes Heart Disease

3. LISINOPRIL (Prinivil/Zestril) AND NORVASC (Amlodipine)


Use: Reduction of High Blood Pressure

In combination, Lisinopril and Norvasc make up a whopping 23% of the top prescribed medications. This makes them the most prescribed generic medications (if combined) for cardiovascular disease and blood pressure. Individually, Lisinopril constitutes approximately 14% and Norvasc about 9%.

How it Works:
Lisinopril is typically used for the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and heart attacks. Norvasc is used for hypertension and angina. It accomplishes this by inhibiting the influx of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle so it essentially interferes with the metabolism of calcium.

Consequences:
Cancer, blood disorders, development of breasts in men, impotence, depression, tachycardia, enlargement of gums, inflammation of the liver, elevated blood glucose, hepatitis, life threatening skin conditions.

Natural Foods:
Any foods high in vitamin C (chili peppers, guavas, bell peppers, thyme, parsley, dark leafy greens, broccoli), any foods high in magnesium (chocolate, green leafy vegetables, Brazil nuts, almonds, cashews, blackstrap molasses, pumpkin and squash seeds, pine nuts, and black walnuts) and any foods high in potassium (mushrooms, bananas, dark green leafy vegetables, sweet potatoes, oranges and dates). Coconut oil/water and CoQ10 are also very effective for lowering blood pressure.


See:
- Magnesium Reduces Blood Pressure Naturally Without Side Effects
- Low Salt Diets Do Not Decrease Blood Pressure, Period
- Vitamin C Supplements Reduce Blood Pressure Without Side Effects Associated With Medication
- Low Potassium Linked To High Blood Pressure

4. SYNTHROID (levothyroxine sodium)


Use: Hypothyroidism

A synthetic form of the thyroid hormone thyroxine, generic Synthroid makes up more than 11% of the top prescribed medications. It’s used to treat hypothyroidism. The related drug dextrothyroxine (D-thyroxine) was used in the past as a treatment for elevated cholesterol but was withdrawn due to cardiac side-effects.

How it Works:
It replaces the thyroid hormone which is naturally occurring in the thyroid gland essentially halting natural production.

Consequences:
Long-term suppression of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) causes cardiac side-effects and contributes to decreases in bone mineral density (high TSH levels are also well known to contributes to osteoporosis.) May also cause elevated blood glucose levels, heart failure, coma and adrenal insufficiency. TSH directly influences the whole process of iodine trapping and thyroid hormone production so use of synthroid directly affects how the body metabolizes iodine.

Natural Foods:
Any foods containing iodine such as seaweed, kelp, radish, parsley, fish, seafood, eggs, bananas, cranberries, strawberries, himalayan crystal salt. Also, copper, iron, selenium and zinc are essential in the production of thyroid hormones. Exercise a minimum of 20-30 minutes per day — enough to raise the heartbeat.

See:
- Seaweed Extracts Can Help You Lose Weight, Mostly Body Fat
- 8 Critical Nutrients Lacking In More Than 70 Percent of Diets
- The Number One Reason So Many Women Have Trouble Losing Weight

5. PRILOSEC (omeprazole/generic versions of nexium)

Use: Antacid

A proton pump inhibitor which constitutes just over 8% of the top prescribed medications. Omeprazole is one of the most widely prescribed drugs for reflux disease (GORD/GERD/LPR) and ulcers internationally and is available over the counter in some countries.

How it Works:
It suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the gastric acid ions in cells. The absorption of omeprazole takes place in the small intestine essentially turning off the switch which promotes healthy digestion of foods. Omeprazole is also completely metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system.

Consequences:
Angina, ulcers, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitations, elevated blood pressure, development of male breasts, inflammation of the pancreas, irritable colon, mucosal atrophy of the tongue, liver disease/failure, elevated blood sugar, muscle weakness, skin conditions, tinnitus, inflammation of the eyes, urinary frequency, testicular pain, anemia and blood cell disorders.

Natural Foods:
Grapefruits, probiotics, broccoli sprouts, manuka honey, mastic gum, marshmallow tea, glutamine, slippery elm, deglycyrrhized liquorice (DGL), aloe vera juice, baking soda, pickle juice.

See:
- Grapefruit Heals Stomach Ulcers
- Broccoli Sprouts May Prevent Gastritis, Ulcers and Stomach Cancers
- Manuka Honey Reverses Antibiotic Resistance, Treats Disease

6. AZITHROMYCIN AND AMOXICILLIN


Use: Antibiotic

In combination, azithromycin and amoxicillin contribute towards a mind-blowing 17% of the top prescribed medications. Then we wonder why we have antibiotic resistance. On their own, each contributes about 8.5%. Azithromycin is one of the world’s best-selling antibiotics and derived from erythromycin. Amoxicillin is usually the drug of choice for children.

How it Works:
Inhibits the synthesis of bacterial cell walls and interfering with their protein synthesis. These drugs also inhibit the protein synthesis of good bacteria needed for immunity and proper digestion.

Consequences:
Inflammation of the liver, inflammation and destruction of the stomach lining, destruction of healthy bacterial populations, inflammation of the colon, allergic reactions, obesity, human antibiotic resistance.

Natural Foods:
Sunlight (vit D), garlic, coconut oil, turmeric, foods high in nicotinamide (vit B3) such as salmon, sardines and nuts. Also manuka honey, olive leaf extract, green tea, pau D’Arco, rose water, myrrh, grapeseed extract, golden seal, oregon grapes, oregano oil, andrographis paniculata, and probiotics.

See:
- Garlic Proven 100 Times More Effective Than Antibiotics, Working In A Fraction of The Time
- Before Antibiotics Ever Existed, Sunlight Was Used To Treat Diseases With Great Success
- The Most Potent B Vitamin That Combats Infections Better Than Antibiotics Ever Could

7. GLUCOPHAGE (metformin)

Use: Oral anti-diabetic drug

Glucophage drugs round up the top 7 but the prescription rate of this drug is rapidly increasing. It makes up about 7% of the top prescribed medications. It is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, in particular, in overweight and obese people. It also acts to indirectly lower LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

How it Works:
By suppressing natural glucose production by the liver, the drug activates an enzyme which plays an important role in insulin signaling, whole body energy balance, and the metabolism of glucose and fats.

Consequences:
Lactic acidosis, impaired liver/kidney function, decreasing thyroid stimulating hormone and testosterone, increased homocysteine levels, malabsorption of vitamin B12, B12 deficiency, bladder cancer, heart failure. The biggest consequence of diabetes drugs is that it causes pancreatic function to substantially decrease inhibiting several hormones and causing other imbalances which are never correctable without abstaining from the drug.

Source: realfamacy.com

 
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Many societies, especially those of the Americas and China, have a history of using cayenne pepper therapeutically. A powerful compound with many uses, cayenne pepper is currently gaining buzz for cleansing and detoxifying regimes such as the Master Cleanse, which uses the spice to stimulate circulation and neutralize acidity.

Cayenne pepper has been used for a variety of ailments including heartburn, delirium, tremors, gout, paralysis, fever, dyspepsia, flatulence, sore throat, atonic dyspepsia, hemorrhoids, menorrhagia in women, nausea, tonsillitis, scarlet fever and diphtheria.

The Health Benefits of Cayenne Pepper


1. Anti-Irritant Properties

Cayenne has the ability to ease upset stomach, ulcers, sore throats, spasmodic and irritating coughs, and diarrhea.

2. Anti-Cold and Flu Agent

Cayenne pepper aids in breaking up and moving congested mucus. Once mucus begins to leave the body, relief from flu symptoms generally follows.

3. Anti-Fungal Properties

The results of one study indicated that cayenne pepper could effectively prevent the formation of the fungal pathogens phomopsis and collectotrichum [1].

4. Migraine Headache Prevention

This may be related to the pepper’s ability to stimulate a pain response in a different area of the body, thus reverting the brain’s attention to the new site. Following this initial pain reaction, the nerve fibers have a depleted substance P (the nerve’s pain chemical), and the perception of pain is lessened.

5. Anti-Allergen

Cayenne is an anti- agent and may even help relieve allergies.

6. Digestive Aid

Cayenne is a well-known digestive aid. It stimulates the digestive tract, increasing the flow of enzyme production and gastric juices. This aids the body’s ability to metabolize food (and toxins). Cayenne pepper is also helpful for relieving intestinal gas. It stimulates intestinal peristaltic motion, aiding in both assimilation and elimination.

7. Anti-Redness Properties

Cayenne’s properties makes it a great herb for many chronic and degenerative conditions.

8. Helps Produce Saliva

Cayenne stimulates the production of saliva, an important key to excellent digestion and maintaining optimal oral health.

9. Useful for Blood Clots

Cayenne pepper also helps reduce atherosclerosis, encourages fibrinolytic activity and prevents factors that lead to the formation of blood clots, all of which can help reduce the chances of a heart attack or stroke.
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10. Detox Support
Cayenne is a known circulatory stimulant. It also increases the pulse of our lymphatic and digestive rhythms. By heating the body, the natural process of detoxification is streamlined. Cayenne also causes us to sweat, another important process of detoxification. Combined with lemon juice and honey, cayenne tea is an excellent morning beverage for total body detox.

11. Joint-Pain Reliever
Extremely high in a substance called capsaicin, cayenne pepper acts to cause temporary pain on the skin, which sends chemical messengers from the skin into the joint, offering relief for joint pain.

12. Anti-Bacterial Properties
Cayenne is an excellent preservative and has been used traditionally to prevent food contamination from bacteria.

13. Possible Anti-Cancer Agent

Studies done at the Loma Linda University in California found that cayenne pepper may help prevent lung cancer in smokers [2]. This may be again related to cayenne’s high quantity of capsaicin, a substance that might help stop the formation of tobacco-induced lung tumors. Other studies have also shown a similar reaction in cayenne’s resistance to liver tumors.

14. Supports Weight Loss
Scientists at the Laval University in Quebec found that participants who took cayenne pepper for breakfast were found to have less appetite, leading to less caloric intake throughout the day. Cayenne is also a great metabolic-booster, aiding the body in burning excess amounts of fats.

15. Promotes Heart-Health
Cayenne helps to keep blood pressure levels normalized. It also balances the body of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides.

16. Remedy for Toothache
Cayenne is an excellent agent against tooth and gum diseases.

17. Topical Remedy
As a poultice, cayenne has been used to treat snake bites, rheumatism, sores, wounds and lumbago.

-Dr. Edward F. Group III, DC, ND, DACBN, DABFM

References:
  1. P.C. Agarwal, Usha Dev, Baleshwar Singh, Indra Rani, Dinesh Chand, R.K. Khetarpal. Seed-borne fungi identified from exotic pepper (Capsicum spp.) germplasm samples introduced during 1976–2005. PGR Newsletter – Bioversity. issue. 149, pp.39-42.
  2. Urashima M, Segawa T, Okazaki M, Kurihara M, Wada Y, Ida H. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May;91(5):1255-60. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.29094. Epub 2010 Mar 10.

Source: globalhealingcenter.com

 
Oregano is known botanically as Origanum vulgare and is called wild marjoram in many parts of Europe since it is closely related to the herb that we know as sweet marjoram. Its name is derived from the Greek words oros (mountain) and ganos (joy) since not only was it a symbol of happiness, but it made the hillsides on which it grew look beautiful.
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Scientific names     

Coleus amboinicus Lour.      
Coleus aromaticus Benth.     
Coleus suganda Blanco      
Plectranthus aromaticus Roxb.     
Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Sprengel     

Common names


Bildu (Sul.)
Clavo (C. L. Bis.)
Latai (Sub.)
Latay (Sub.)
Oregano (Span.)
Suganda (Tag.)
Torongil de Limon (Span.)
Zuo shou xiang (Chin.)
Botany

Suganda is an erect, spreading, branched, rather coarse, strongly aromatic, green herb, with fleshy stems. Leaves are fleshy, broadly ovate, 4 to 9 centimeters long, often heart-shaped, and somewhat hairy, with rounded toothed margins, with the tip and base decurrent. Flowers are small, and occur in distant whorls. Calyx is bell-shaped; the throat is smooth inside, with two lips, the upper lip being ovate and thin, the lower lip having four narrow teeth. Corolla is pale purplish and 5 times longer than the calyx, with a short tube, inflated throat, and short lips.

Distribution


- Cultivated for its aromatic leaves.
- Certainly introduced.
- Also occurring in India to Malaya.

Constituents


- Fresh leaves yield 0.055 volatile oil, largely carvacrol.
- Phytochemical screening yielded carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, tannins, flavanoids, saponins, glycosides.

Properties


- Aromatic, carminative, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, tonic, stimulant.
- In India, considered antilithiotic, chemopreventive, antiepileptic, antioxidant.

Parts utilized


Leaves
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Uses

Edibility / Culinary

  • As condiment, provides fragrance to salads and strong-smelling meat dishes.
  • Sometimes, used as flavoring for drinks.

Folkloric

  • In the Philippines, macerated fresh leaves applied externally to burns.
  • Leaves are bruised and applied to centipede and scorpion bites. Also, applied to temples and forehead for headache, help in place by a bandage.
  • Leaves in infusion or as syrup used as aromatic and carminative; used for dyspepsia and also as a cure for asthma.
  • The Malays used the plant juice or decoction for pains around the areas of the heart or abdomen.
  • Decoction of leaves given after childbirth.
  • In Indo-China, given for asthma and bronchitis.
  • The juice of the leaves for dyspepsia, asthma, chronic coughs, bronchitis, colic, flatulence, rheumatism. The dose is one tablespoonful of the fresh juice every hour for adults and one teaspoonful every two hours, four times daily, for children. As an infusion, 50 to 60 grams to a pint of boiling water, and drink the tea, 4 to 5 glasses a day. For children, 1/2 cup 4 times daily.
  • For otalgia (ear aches), pour the fresh, pure juice into the ear for 10 minutes.
  • For carbuncles, boils, sprains, felons, painful swellings: Apply the poultice of leaves to the affected area, four times daily.
  • For sore throats, a decoction of two tablespoonfuls of dried leaves to a pint of boiling water, taken one hour before or after meals.
  • In India, leaves are used traditionally for bronchitis, asthma, diarrhea, epilepsy, nephro-cystolithiasis, fever, indigestion and cough. Also used for malarial fever, hepatopathy, renal and vesicle calculi, hiccup, helminthiasis, colic, and convulsions.
  • The Chinese used the juice of leaves with sugar, for cough in children, asthma and bronchitis, epilepsy and convulsive disorders.
  • Leaves are applied to cracks at the corners of the mouth, for thrush, headaches; against fever as a massage or as a wash.
  • Used for bladder and urinary afflictions, and vaginal discharges.
  • Used as carminative, given to children for colic.
  • In Bengal, used for coli and dyspepsia.
  •  Expressed juice applied around the orbit to relieve conjunctival pain.

Others

  • Fresh leaves rubbed on clothing or hair at the time of bathing for its scent.

Recent uses and preparations

Respiratory ailments like cough, asthma and bronchitis: Squeeze juice of the leaves. Take one teaspoon every hour for adults. For children above 2 years old, 3 to 4 teaspoons a day.

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Studies

Antioxidant / Anticlastogenic / Radioprotective: Antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective effect of Coleus aromaticus on Chinese hamster fibroblast cells (V79) exposed to gamma radiation: The hydroalcoholic extract of CA showed dose-dependent radical scavenging against free radicals, rendered radioprotection against radiation induced DNA damage. Study results established antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective activities and suggests a potential for chemoprevention.

Antioxidant: Study of freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ca clearly established the antioxidant potency of freeze-dried extract of C aromaticus.

Mast cell stabilization property: Study showed stabilization of mast cells in rat mesenteric tissue and suggests further studies into mast cells with its role in Type 1 hypersensitivity-mediated diseases like asthma and rhinitis.

Antimicrobial: (1) Antimicrobial Activity Of Coleus aromaticus (Benth) Against Microbes Of Reproductive Tract Infections Among Women : Results suggests the herb could be an ideal choice for treating reproductive tract infections. (2) Study showed the antimicrobial effect of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium infuum toward C albicans and Strep mutans.

Anticlastogenicity: Study of ethanolic extract of C aromaticus showed a protective effect against cyclophophamide and mitomycin-C induced cytogenetic damage.

Anti-Inflammatory: In a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, the aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, attributed to the inhibition of mediators released from the 2nd phase of inflammation.

Antibacterial: Study showed both ethanol and hot water leaf extracts of Coleus aromaticus to possess potent antibacterial activity, the ethanol extract showing greater activity. Results provide scientific support for the centuries-old use of the plant as a medicinal herb.

Forskolin / Antioxidant / Anti-Asthma / Pulmo-protective: Study isolated forskolin, a diterpenoid, from a methanolic extract of C aromaticus. C aromaticus has been used to treat asthma. Forskolin has been thought to be responsible for its pharmaceutical activity through restoration of antioxidant enzyme activity with its ability to scavenge free radicals. The results validate the use of forskolin as an anti-asthmatic agent.

Insecticidal / Anti-Termite: Study investigating the leaf essential oil of C. amboinicus yielded six components. The major component was thymol (94.3%), followed by carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, spathuylenol, terpinen-4-ol. The oil was insecticidal to white termites (Odontotermes obesus Rhamb). It was more active than synthetic insecticides, Thiodan and Primoban-20 against termites, although it was ineffective against Tribolium castaneum, a stored product pest.

Galactagogue / Bangun-bangun Leaves: Participants in an Indonesian of study of Batakneese women were given bangun-bangun soup during their nursing period, most consuming a bowl of soup three times daily for 30-40 days. The study aimed to gather information about the women's beliefs and experiences in the use of the herb. The participants felt their breasts become full with breast milk. Most felt consuming CA leaves helped control postpartum bleeding and help "uterine cleansing."

Anthelmintic / Antimicrobial: A chloroform and methanol extract of leaf and leaf oil showed significant anthelmintic activity. The plant extracts also showed antibacterial activity against test organisms, with very poor antifungal activity.

Availability

Wild-crafted.
Cultivated for condiment and culinary use. 


Source: stuartxchange


Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Recent uses / Philippine Inquirer. Monica Feria. Oct 6, 2007

(2)Antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective effect of Coleus aromaticus on Chinese hamster fibroblast cells (V79) exposed to gamma radiation / B S Satish Rao et al / Mutagenesis 2006 21(4):237-242; doi:10.1093/mutage/gel023 /

(3)Mast cell stabilization property of Coleus aromaticus leaf extract in rat peritoneal mast cells / Kumar A et al / Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 39, No. 2, March-April, 2007, pp. 119-120/

(4)  Antimicrobial Activity Of Coleus aromaticus (Benth) Against Microbes Of Reproductive Tract Infections Among Women

(5)Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus / A Kumran and R Joel Karunakaran / Food Chemistry • Volume 97, Issue 1, July 2006, Pages 109-114 / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.03.032

(6)Efficiency of Coleus aromaticus extract in modifying cyclophosphamide and mitomycin-C induced clastogenicity in mouse bone marrow cells / Prassad Naik P and Vijayalaxmi K K / Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Sep;40(9):1020-5.

(7)Antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium infusum towards Candida albican and Streptococcu mutans / Devi Rianti and Sri Yogyarti / Dept of Dental Material and Technology . Faculty of Dentistry. Airlangga Univerisity. Surabaya, Indonesia

(8)Screening of antiinflammatory activity of coleus aromaticus / Neelam Begum, C Mayuren, K Sateesh et al / international journal of chemical sciences, bapatla colege of pharmacy, Volume 7, Issue 4, bapatla, p.2384-2388 (2009)

(9)ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COLEUS AROMATICUS LEAVES / Subhas Chandrappa M, harsha R et al / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, ISSN- 0975-1491, Vol 2, Issue 3, 2010

(10)Coleus aromaticus Benth act as an immunostimulant in Channa marulius Hamilton

(11)PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FORSKOLIN ISOLATED FROM COLEUS AROMATICUS ON THE LUNG DAMAGE RATS / D Srinivasa Rao, V Prasada Rao and K R S Sambisiva Rao / PHARMANEST
Vol.1 (1) Sep-Oct-2010 An International Journal of Advances In Pharmaceutical Sciences

(12)Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Different Parts of Coleus amboinicus lour., Lamiaceae / K K Hullatti, Prasenjit Bhattacharjee / DOI: 10.5530/pj.2011.24.8

(13)Studies on essential oils, Part 33: chemical and insecticidal investigations on leaf oil of Coleus amboinicus Lour. / Gurdip Singh1, Om Prakash Singh, Y. R. Prasad, M. P. de Lampasona, C. Catalan / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Volume 17, Issue 6, pages 440–442, November/December 2002 / DOI: 10.1002/ffj.1123

(14)Consumption of bangun-bangun leaves (Coleus amboinicus Lour) to increase breast milk production among Batakneese women in North Sumatra Island, Indonesia / R Damanik, N Damanik, Z Daulay, S Saragih, R Premier, N Wattanapenpaiboon, ML Wahlqvist / Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of Australia (2001) 25

(15)PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING , ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTHELMINTHIC STUDIES ON COLEUS AROMATICUS BENTH. / Prameela T S, Oommen P Saj / Internationl Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, June 2011, Vol 3, No 4, Article 14.

 
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Scientific names   
 
Amomum zingiber Linn.      
Zingiber blancoi Hassk.      
Zingiber officinale Roscoe     
Zingiber sichuanense Z. Y. Zhu et al.     
Jiang (Chin.)     

Common names


Agat (Pamp., Pang.)
Baseng (Ilk.)
Gengibre (Span.)
Laial (Sbl.)
Laiya (If.)
Laya (Ilk., Bon., Ibn., It.)
Luy-a (Bis.)
Luya (Tag.)
Common ginger (Engl.)
Ginger (Engl.)  
Lao jiang (Chin.)
Other vernacular names

ARABIC: Skînzhbîr (Morocco), Zanjabil.
ASSAMESE: Aadaa.
BENGALI: Aadaa (plant), Adrak.
BOSNIAN: Crni ingver, Đumbir, Gingibar, Isiot, Isnot, Mrki ingver, Pravi ingver, Vruća trava, Zinđefil.
BULGARIAN: Dzhindzhifil.
BURMESE: Gyin.
CHINESE: Qiang jiang, Zi jiang.
CROATIAN: Cencer, Crni ingver, Đumber, Gingibar, Ingver, Isjet, Mrki ingver, Pravi ingver, Zenzer.
CZECH: Dumbír, Zázvor, Zázvor kořen.
DANISH: Ingefaer.
DUTCH: Gember.
ESTONIAN: Harilik ingwer.
FINNISH: Inkivääri.
FRENCH: Gingembre, Gingembre commun, Gingembre officinal, Gingembre traditionnel.
GERMAN: Inbwer, Ingwer.
GREEK: Tzintzer, Piperoriza, Ziggiveris.
HEBREW: Zangvil.
HINDI: Adarak, Sonth.
HUNGARIAN: Gyömbér.
ITALIAN: Zenzero, Zenzevero, Pepe zenzero.
JAPANESE: Jinjaa, Shouga.
KANNADA: Alla.
KHMER: Khnehey, Khnhei phlung .
KOREAN: Saeng gang.
LAOTIAN: Khing.
MALAY: Halia, Haliya, Haliya merah, Kunyit terus, Aliah, Jae, Jahe, Jahya, Lahya..
MALAYALAM: Inchi, Chuku.
NEPALESE: Aduvaa, Sutho.
NORWEGIAN: Ingefær.
POLISH: Jembier.
PORTUGUESE: Gengibre, Ingever.
PUNJABI: Adrak, Sund.
RUSSIAN: Imbir', Imbir' lekarstvennyi.
SINHALESE: Inguru.
SPANISH: Anchoas, Jengibre.
SWEDISH: Ingefära, Ingefoera.
THAI: Khing, Khing daeng, Khing klaeng, Khing phueak, Sa e.
TURKISH: Zentzephil, Zencefil, Zencebil.
VIETNAMESE: Cây gùng, Gừng, Sinh khương.
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Botany

Luya is an erect, smooth plant arising from thickened, very aromatic rootstocks. Leafy stems are 0.4 to 1 meter high. Leaves are distichous, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 15 to 25 centimeters long, and 2 centimeters wide or less. Scape arising from the rootstocks is erect, 15 to 25 centimeters high, and covered with distant, imbricate bracts. Spike is ovoid to ellipsoid, about 5 centimeters long. Bracts are ovate, cuspidate, about 2.5 centimeters long, and pale green. Calyx is 1 centimeter long or somewhat less. Corolla is greenish yellow, and its tube is less than 2 centimeters long, while the lip is oblong-obovate and slightly purplish.

Distribution


- Widely cultivated in the Philippines.
- Nowhere naturalized.
- Native of tropical Asia.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents


• Pungent principles, mainly zingerone and shogaol, provides the characteristic taste.
• The most biologically active phenolic compounds, gingerols and shogaols, are found in the root.
• Volatile oil, 1.23 to 3% - gingerol, zingerone, zingiberene, cineol, borneol, phellandrene, citral, zingiberene, linalool, geraniol, chavicol, vanillyl alcohol, camphene; resin.

Properties


• Extracts and active constituents have shown potent antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antimutagenic, antimicrobial and possible anticancer activities.
• Considered adaptogenic, anodyne, anthelmintic, antiallergenic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, antifungal, antithrombotic, antitumore, antiulcer, aphrodisiac, carminative, diuretic, rubefacient, anti-platelet aggregation, hypolipidemic, thermoregulatory.
• Pungency is attributed to the pungent principle, zingerone and shogaol, while the aroma is imparted by the volatile oil.
• Considered stomachic, carminative, stimulant, diaphoretic, sialagogue, and digestive.

Parts utilized

Tops, leaves and edible roots.

Uses


Nutritional
- One of the most popular flavoring agents.
- Used as flavoring for confectioneries, ginger ale, ginger beer, ginger champagnes, and other beverages.
- Tahu or salabat, a native beverage, is prepared from the rhizomes.
- A prominent condiment in Filipino cuisine.
- Taken with rock salt before meals is cleansing to the tongue and throat and increases the appetite.
- In Malaya fresh ginger is an important ingredient in curry.

Folkloric

- In the Philippines, pounded rhizome, alone or mixed with oil, used as revulsive and antirheumatic.
- As antiseptic, tincture of dried rhizome prepared with 70% alcohol (not rubbing alcohol) and applied on superficial cuts and wounds; or, juice from fresh rhizome used similarly.
- As digestive aid and for flatulence and tympanism, decoction of the rhizome drunk as tea.
- Ginger juice rubbed on and around the navel is said to cure all kinds of diarrhea.
- For rheumatism, roasted rhizome is pounded and mixed with oil and applied locally.
- For sore throat and hoarseness, warm decoction of the rhizome is drunk as ginger tea (salabat); piece of small rhizome chewed for the same.
- Rhizome used as cough remedy, rubefacient, carminative and diuretic.
- Also used for hangovers.
- For chronic rheumatism, ginger infusion ( 2 drams in 6 ounces of boiling water and strained) is taken at bedtime
- Poulticed of pounded and warmed leaves applied to bruises.
- Ginger taken with rock salt before meals is said to clean the tongue and throat and increase the appetite.
- Chewing ginger is said to diminish biliousness and delirium, relieve sore throat, hoarseness and aphonia, and increases the flow of saliva.
- Dried ginger used as corrective adjunct to purgatives to prevent nausea and intestinal pain.
- Juice from fresh ginger in gradually increasing doses is a strong diuretic in cases of general dropsy.
- For headaches: Ginger plaster (bruised ginger in water to the consistency of poultice) is applied to the forehead. Same preparation may be helpful for toothaches and facial pain.
- Hot infusion used for stoppage of menses due to cold.
- In Indo-China, cataplasm used for furuncles; when mixed with oil is antirheumatic. Rhizomes also used for tuberculosis, general fatigue and uterine affections.
- In Perak, rhizomes used as vermifuge.
- In the Antilles powdered rhizome used as revulsive for pleuritis.
- In Ayurvedic medicine, used for inflammation and rheumatism.
- In India, used as carminative adjunct along with black pepper and long pepper.
- In Chinese folk medicine, pulverized fresh ginger used for baldness and vitiligo. Juice from fresh root used for treatment of burns.

New uses

• Motion Sickness / Pregnancy-related Nausea: Antiemetic properties. Used for Nausea, motion sickness (1 gm taken 1/2 hour before the voyage). Stimulates digestion. Possibly antiinflammatory.

Preparations

Ginger tea
Ginger tea preparation, the Chinese way : Bring one cup of water to boil. Add one teaspoon of the roasted (parched and browned) rice and a small piece of ginger root. Boil for one minute. Let stand to cool for drinking. (Preparation of dried rice: Pour enough water to cover 1/2 cup white rice in a flat dish; and let stand overnight. In the morning, drain off the excess water. Roast the rice in a dry pan, stirring constantly until parched and brown. Store in a glass jar for future use, tightly covered to keep moisture out.)

Ginger lozenges

• Wash and peel the ginger, then mince.
• Spread and air-dry for a day or oven-dry at 250 C.
• Grind and strain the dried ginger.
* In a mortar, mix 1 cup ground ginger and 1 cup confectioner's sugar.
• Pound and mix while gradually adding water until a pulp is formed.
• Level the pulp on a board lined with wax paper.
• Using a mold, make balls from the pulp and wrap each lozenge in aluminum foil.

How to make medicated candies from powdered rhizomes

Materials, proportion and procedure:

Go to Traditional and Modern Medicine
http://traditionalmed.blogspot.com/2007/01/how-to-prepare-ginger-lozenges.html
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Studies

• Prokinetic: Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders: Study confirmed prokinetic activity of the extract. Spasmolytic constituents may explain its use in hyperactive states as in colic and diarrhea.

• Antidiarrheal: Study results indicate that in the absence of antimicrobial action, Z officinale exhibits its antidiarrheal activity by affecting bacterial and host cell metabolism.

Antibacterial: (1) Antibacterial Activity Of Allium cepa (Onions) And Zingiber officinale (Ginger) On Staphylococcus aureus And Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated From High Vaginal Swab: The study showed both plants had antibacterial activity on the test organisms, ginger having more inhibitory effect, and confirming their folkloric use. (2) In a study on the comparative effect of ginger and some antibiotics on two pathogenic bacteria, results showed the ginger extract of both plant and root showed the highest antibacterial activity against S. aureus and Strep pyogenes while three antibiotics showed less extent of activity compared to the ginger extract.

Anti-inflammatory / Anti-thrombotic: The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent: Study suggests ginger can be used as a cholesterol-lowering, anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent.

• Antioxidant / Anticancer: Study showed Zingiber officinale may exert its anticancer effect by replacing the action of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in removing superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide causing oxidative damage to cells.

• Antibacterial (Garlic/Ginger) Synergism: Study investigated the therapeutic effects of ginger and garlic against Klebsiella pneumonia, whether the combined extract could be synergistic or antagonistic in rats. Study showed a synergistic relationship, garlic ameliorating the efficacy of ginger only against Klebsiella infection.

• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Arthritis / Prostaglandin Inhibition: Study suggests one of the mechanisms by which ginger shows ameliorative effects could be through inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotrine biosynthesis - as a dual inhibitor of eicosanoid biosynthesis.

• Gastroprotective: Study results suggest cytoprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects with significant protection against ethanol-, HCl-, NaOH-induced gastric lesions and prevention of the occurrence of gastric ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hypothermic restrain stress.

• Decreased Sperm Motility: Study results conclude that ginger can induce toxic effects on sperm parameters, ie, a lower percentage of motility and grading when methanolic ginger is added to semen fluid.

• Hepatoprotective: Study of the ethanol extract of Z officinale showed protective effect against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity with better protective effect at higher dose levels.

• Anti-Aging: Study in mice showed ginger extract significantly reduced the development of atherosclerotic lesions and lowered LDL-cholesterol.

• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of rhizome extract in Swiss mice showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties with significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and reduction of writhing induced by acetic acid.

• Pregnancy-Related Nausea: Reasonable evidence suggests that ginger roots is effective in reducing pregnancy-related nausea. However, there is conflicting data on its efficacy for preventing motion sickness or post-operative nausea.

• Anti-Inflammatory / Antibacterial / Hypoglycemic / Analgesic: Study of ethanol extract showed (1) reduction of carrageenan-induced paw swelling and yeast-induced fever (2) blood glucose lowering (3) inhibition of gram- and gram+ bacteria (4) dose-dependent prostaglandin release inhibition.

• Analgesic: Study demonstrated the daily consumption of raw and heat-treated ginger resulted in moderate to large reduction in muscle pain following exercise-induced muscle injury. The findings agree with findings of ginger's hypoalgesic effects in osteoarthritic patients.

• Antiarthritic: Study of the alcoholic extract of ZO can ameliorate inflammatory processes in rat collagen-induced arthritis, together with reduction of serum levels of interleukins, TNF, and anti-CII antibodies. It also showed to be superior to indomethacin 2 mg/kg/d at most measured parameters. The extract presents an alternative to NSAID use in RA.

• Hypoalgesic Effect on Exercise-Induced Muscle Pain: Study on healthy volunteers showed daily consumption of raw and heat-treated ginger resulted in moderate to large reductions in muscle pain following exercise-induced muscle injury. (18)

Anticancer / Anti-Inflammatory: Ginger extract significantly reduced the expression of NFkB and TNF-a in rats with liver cancer. It may act as an anticancer and anti-inflammatory by inactivating NFkB through suppression of proinflammatory TNF-a.

Delayed Diabetic Cataract Progression: Results showed ginger was effective against the development of diabetic cataracts in rats, mainly through its antiglycating potentiation, and also, through an inhibition of the polyol pathway. As such, dietary sources, such as ginger, can be explored for its potential in preventing or delaying diabetic complications. (23)

Neuroprotective / Memory Benefits: Study showed cognitive function and neurons density in rat hippocampus receiving ginger rhizome extract were improved white the brain infarct volume decreased. The effect may be through antioxidant activity of the extract. Results demonstrate the beneficial effect of ginger rhizome in protecting against focal cerebral ischemia. (24)

Anti-Ulcerogenic Effect: Study in a model of acute colitis showed ginger hydroalcoholic extract was effective in protecting against experimental colitis.

Antidiabetic / Amylase and Glucosidase Enzyme Inhibitory Effect: Studies have targeted digestive enzymes as targets for modulation of glucose concentration through inhibition of enzymatic breakdown of complex carbohydrates. In this study, glucosidase and amylase activities on rice were inhibited by the addition of ginger with consequent significant reduction in glucose percentages. Results were comparable to Acarbose on glucosidase activity. (26)

Antimicrobial / Anticancer: Study has showed many diarylheptanoids and gingerol-related compounds from the rhizome of ZO possess significant antiproliferation activity on HL-60 cells, probably through induction of cell apoptosis. Another study has shown ginger extract and 6-gingerol to both directly interfere with colon cancer proliferation. Results show ginger's phytochemical potential for chemoprevention and therapy. In this study, the ethanol and chloroform extracts were found to possess antibacterial properties against 8 microorganisms.(27)

Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of raw ginger for hypoglycemic potential of ginger in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Raw ginger was significant effective in lowering serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol levels. Results indicate hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic potential. Raw ginger was also effective in reversing diabetic proteinuria in diabetic rats. (30)

Cytotoxicity / Toxicity / Anticancer Activity / Cholangiocarcinoma: Study evaluated a crude ethanolic extract of ginger against CCA in mice. Results from in vitro and in vivo studies showed promising anticancer activity with an absence of any significant toxicity. However, MDR1 and MRP3 may be involved in CCA resistance to the ginger extract.(31)

Cognitive Enhancer / Middle-Aged Women: Study evaluated the effect of ginger extract on cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Ginger-treated groups have significant decrease in P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, with enhanced working memory. Results suggest ginger to be a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. (32)

Anti-Liver Fibrosis: Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanolic one, showed potential benefits for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Evaluation was done using antioxidant parameters, liver markers and liver function enzymes, and cholestatic markers. (33)

Cardiovascular Toxic Effects: Study evaluated the acute and subacute cardiovascular toxicity of ginger in adult male albino rats. In high doses (500mg/kg) for 28 days, ginger produced both hypotension and bradycardia with degenerative changes in cardiac myocyte fibers. The effects may be partially due to vasodilatation with increased nitric oxide release or synthesis and partly from a calcium channel blocking effect, and perhaps, a cholinomimetic effect.(34)

Ginger Benefits in Acute Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea: In a double-blind, multicenter trial using placebo and various doses of ginger, results showed all doses of ginger significantly reduced acute nausea compared to placebo. Results suggest ginger supplementation at a daily dose of 0.5 g to 1.0 g significantly helps in reducing the severity of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea. (35)

Ginger Essential Oil for Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting: A 5% solution of essential oil of ginger in grape seed carrier oil, applied naso-cutaneously, can be administered safely for prevention and management of nausea in general anesthesia patients at high risk for post-operative nausea and vomiting.(36)

Side effects

• No known side effects or drug interactions.
• The German Commission E recommends that it be avoided during pregnancy due to possible inhibition of testosterone binding in the fetus.
• The use in pregnancy for hyperemesis gravidarum is controversial. Use for nausea during pregnancy is not recommended. • Should not be used by pregnant women with a history of bleeding disorders and miscarriages.

Anticoagulant precaution


Decreases platelet adhesiveness; therefore, should be used with caution by patients on anticoagulant therapy.

Availability


Wild-crafted.
Popular condiment and perennial market produce.
Candied ginger and lozenges.
Dried powdered gingeroot.
Tinctures, tablets, capsules, syrups and teas in the cybermarket.


Source: stuartxchange



Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders

(2)Antibacterial Activity Of Allium cepa (Onions) And Zingiber officinale (Ginger) On Staphylococcus aureus And Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated From High Vaginal Swab

(3)The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent

(4)Bioactive compounds from Punica granatum, Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale and their therapeutic potential

(5) Ginger tea preparation (Healing the Filipino Body and Spirit by Marie Castillo Pruden. Filipinas Magazine)

(6)  Ginger lozenges (Herbs and Spices. Ernesta Quintana. Negosiyete Plus, July 1993)

(7)Effects of Zingiber officinale on Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Catalase, Glutathione and Malondialdehyde Content in HepG2 Cell Line / Harliansyah Abdul Hanif et al / Malaysian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 11 (5). pp. 36-41

(8)Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) on rats infected with Kleibsiella pneumoniae / Adeoti Olatunde Micheal M.Sc.et al / The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2009 Volume 7 Number 1

(9)Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rheumatism and musculoskeletal disorders / K Srivastava and T Mustafa / Medical Hypotheses, Volume 39, Issue 4, Pages 342-348

(10)Antidiarrhoeal activity of Zingiber officinale / Poonam G Daswani et al / CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 98, NO. 2, 25 JANUARY 2010

(11)Gastroprotective Activity of Ginger ZingiberOfficinale Rose, in Albino Rats / M A Ai-Yahya et al / American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Vol. XVII, Nos 1-2, pp. 51-56, 1988

(12)The Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Human Sperm Parameters; An in vitro Study / S G A Jorsarael et al / Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 11: 1723-1727. / DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2008.1723.1727

(13)Protective Effect of the Ethanol Extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats / Norina Abdullah et al / Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia 2(2) 2004: 85-95

(14)Ginger (Zingiber officinale) / WorldHealth.net

(15)ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC PROPERTIES OF THE RHIZOME EXTRACT OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE / Rajiy Udoh U S et al / Afr. J. Biomed. Res. Vol. 5 (2002) ; 121 – 124

(16)Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

(17)Ethnopharmacologic investigation of ginger (Zingiber officinale) / N Mascilo, R Jain et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 27, Issues 1-2, November 1989, Pages 129-140 / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(89)90085-8 |

(18)Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Reduces Muscle Pain Caused by Eccentric Exercise / Christopher D Black et al / doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2009.12.013

(19)Evaluation of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes in Rat Collagen-induced Arthritis / AM Fouda and M Y Berika / Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol (2009)

(20)Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Reduces Muscle Pain Caused by Eccentric Exercise / Christopher Black, Matthew Herring et al / The Journal of Pain, Volume 11, Issue 9 , Pages 894-903, September 2010

(21)Comparative studies of antibacterial effect of some antibiotics and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on two
pathogenic bacteria
/ A Sebiomo, A D Awofodu, A O Awosanya et al / Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials Vol. 3(1), pp. 18-22, January 2011

(22)Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale) has Anti-Cancer and Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Ethionine-Induced Hepatoma Rats / Shafina Hanin Mohd Habib, Suzana Makpoi et al / Clinics. 2008 December; 63(6): 807–813. / doi: 10.1590/S1807-59322008000600017.

(23)Antiglycating potential of Zingiber officinalis and delay of diabetic cataract in rats / Megha Saraswat, Palla Suryanarayana, Paduru Yadagiri Reddy et al / Molecular Vision 2010; 16:1525-1537

(24)Zingiber officinale Mitigates Brain Damage and Improves Memory Impairment in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rat / Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Jinatta Jittiwat, Terdhai Tongun et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 429505 / doi:10.1155/2011/429505

(25)Anti-ulcerogenic effect of ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) hydroalcoholic extract on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats / M. Minaiyan, A Ghannadi et al / Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, October 2008; 3(2): 15-22

(26)Amylase and glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) an in vitro study / Abeysekara W K, Chandrasekara A, Liyanage P K / Tropical agricultural research, Vol 19, 2007

(27)Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Zingiber officinalis Extracts / Fabad J / Pharm Sci, 33, 77-86, 2008

(28Zingiber officinale Roscoe (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China

(29)Sorting Zingiber names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(30)Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. / Al-Amin ZM, Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Peltonen-Shalaby R, Ali M. / Br J Nutr. 2006 Oct;96(4):660-6.

(31)A Study on Cytotoxicity, Toxicity and Anticancer Activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Against Cholangiocarcinoma / Tullayakorn Plengsuriyakarn , Vithoon Viyanant , Veerachai Eursitthichai , Smarn Tesana , Wanna Chaijaroenkul , Arunporn Itharat and Kesara Na-Bangchang / Research Journal of Pharmacology, 2012 , Vol 6, No 3, Pp 35-47 / DOI: 10.3923/rjpharm.2012.35.47

(32)Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women / Naritsara Saenghong, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Supaporn Muchimapura, Terdthai Tongun, Nawanant Piyavhatkul, Chuleratana Banchonglikitkul, and Tanwarat Kajsongkram / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012 / doi:10.1155/2012/383062

(33)Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis / Tarek K Motawi, Manal A Hamed*, Manal H Shabana, Reem M Hashem and Asmaa F Aboul Naser / Nutrition & Metabolism 2011, 8:40 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-40

(34)
A STUDY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR TOXIC EFFECTS OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE (GINGER) IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS AND ITS POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF ACTION
/ Iman A. Elkhishin and Ibrahim A. Awwad* / Mansoura J. Forensic Med. Clin. Toxicol. Vol. XVII, No. 2, July 2009
(35)
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces acute chemotherapy-induced nausea: a URCC CCOP study of 576 patients / Ryan JL, Heckler CE, Roscoe JA, Dakhil SR, Kirshner J, Flynn PJ, Hickok JT, Morrow GR. / Support Care Cancer. 2012 Jul;20(7):1479-89. doi: 10.1007/s00520-011-1236-3. Epub 2011 Aug 5.
(36)
The essential oil of ginger, Zingiber officinale, and anaesthesia / James L. Geiger* / The International Journal of Aromatherapy (2005) 15, 7–14 / doi:10.1016/j.ijat.2004.12.002

 
Picture
Scientific names    

Allium sativum Linn.     
Allium pekinense Prokhanov     

Common names


Ahos (Bis.)
Bawang (Tag.)
Bauang (Tag.)
Common garlic (Engl.)
Garlic (Engl.)
Nectar of the Gods (Engl.)
Poor Man's Treacle (Engl.)
Hsiao Suan (Chin.)
Stinking Rose (Engl.)
Other vernacular names

ARABIC: Thawm, Thoum, Thum, Toom, Toum, Saum.
ARMENIAN: Sekhdor.
BENGALI: Rasun.
BURMESE: Chyet thon phew.
CHINESE: Suan, Da suan, Da suan tou.
CROATIAN: Češnjak.
DANISH: Hvidløg.
DUTCH: Knoflook.
FINNISH: Valkosipuli.
FRENCH: Ail blanc, Ail commun, Ail cultivé, Ail de printemps, Ail sans bâton, Ail rose sans bâton.
GERMAN: Echter Knoblauch, Knoblauch, Gemeiner Knoblauch, Gewöhnlicher Knoblauch.
GREEK: Skorda, Skordo, Skordon, Skortho.
HEBREW: Shoum, Shum.
HINDI: Lahasun, Lahsan, Larsan, Lasun.
ITALIAN: Aglio, Aglio comune.
JAPANESE: Gaarikku, Ninniku.
KANNADA: Bellulli, Lashuna.
KHMER: Khtüm sââ.
KOREAN: Ma nul.
LAOTIAN: Kath'ièm.
MADURESE: Bhabang poté.
MALAY: Bawang putih, Bawang puteh.
MALAYALAM: Vallaipundu.
MARATHI: Lasuun.
NEPALESE: Lasun.
NORWEGIAN: Hvitløk.
PERSIAN: Seer, Sir.
POLISH: Czosnek, Czosnek pospolity.
PORTUGUESE: Alho.
PUNJABI: Lasun, Lasan.
RUSSIAN: Luk chesnok, Chesnok, Luk posevnoi..
SANSKRIT: Lashunaa.
SERBIAN: Beli luk.
SINHALESE: Sudulunu.
SLOVENIAN: Česen
SPANISH: Ajo, Ajo comun, Ajo vulgar.
SUNDANESE: Bawang bodas.
SWAHILI: Kitunguu saumu.
SWEDISH: Vitlök, Vitloek, Hvitlök.
TAMIL: Vellaypoondoo, Vellaippuuntu, Wullaypoondoo.
TELUGU: Vellulli.
THAI: Krathiam, Hom tiam.
TURKISH: Sarımsak, Sarmesak, Sarmusak.
URDU: Leshun.
VIETNAMESE: Toi
Picture
Botany

Bawang is a low herb, 30 to 60 centimeters high. True stem is much reduced. Bulbs are broadly ovoid, 2 to 4 centimeters in diameter, consisting of several, densely crowded, angular and truncated tubers. Leaves are linear and flat. Umbels are globose, many flowered. Sepals are oblong, greenish white, slightly tinged with purple. Stamens are not exerted from the perianth.

Distribution


- Extensively grown in Batangas, Nueva Ecija, Ilocos Norte, Mindoro, and Cotobato.
- A native of southern Europe.
- Now widely cultivated in most parts of the world.

Constituents


• Garlic contains at least 33 sulfur compounds, several enzymes, 17 amino acids, and minerals. The sulfur compounds are responsible for the pungent odor and many of its medicinal effects.
• Saponins; tannins; sulfurous compounds; prostaglandins; alkaloids; volatile oils; allicin (bulb).
• The antihelmintic property is due to allyl disulphide content.
• The most important chemical constituents are the cysteine sulfoxides (alliin) and the nonvolatile glutamylcysteine peptides which make up more than 82% of the sulfur content of garlic. Allicin, ajoenes and sulfides are degradation products of alliin.
• Some of garlic's effect is attributed to alicin, its active ingredient, which is converted to ajoene, allyl sulfides and vinyldithiins.
• Allicin (dially thiosulfinate or dially disulfide) is generated only when the garlic is crushed or cut, which activates the enzyme allinase which metabolizes alliin to allicin.
• Aged garlic products lack allicin, but may have activity due to the presence of S-allycysteine.
• Bulb: allicin; volatile oil, 0.9% - allyl disulfide, allypropyl disulfide; inulin; protein; fat, 1.3%; carbohydrates, 0.2%; ash, 9.4%; choline, 0.7%; myrosinase.
Leaves: Protein, i.2%; fat, 0.5%; sulfides.

Properties


• Antibacterial, antihelminthic, antimycotic, antiviral, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, expectorant, fibrinolytic, hypotensive, promoting leucocytosis, lipid lowering and platelet aggregation inhibition.

Parts utilized


Bulbs: Features prominently as a condiment and flavor in Filipino cuisine.
Herbalists, with concerns that cooking diminishes medicinal potency, recommends eating raw garlic cloves.

Uses


Edibility / Culinary

- Widely used by Filipinos for flavoring dishes.

Folkloric

- In the Philippines, bulbs used for hypertension. Also used as diuretic, and eaten fresh or burned for coughs in children.
- Arthritis, rheumatism, toothaches: Crush several cloves and rub on affected areas.
- Crush clove applied to both temples as poultice for headache.
- Crush garlic or cut clove crosswise and rub directly to areas of insect bites.
- Decoction of leaves and bulbs for fever and as hypotensive, carminative, expectorant, and antihelmintic.
- Juice from freshly crushed garlic used for colds, cough, sore throat, hoarseness, asthma and bronchitis.
- Decoction use for tonsillitis.
- Steam inhalation of chopped garlic and a teaspoon of vinegar in boiling water used for nasal congestion.
- Fresh garlic has been used as a complement to INH therapy for tuberculosis. In Mexico, fresh bulb is eaten as a preventive for tuberculosis.
- In India, garlic juice diluted in water, applied externally to prevent hair from turning grey.
- Diluted juice used for earaches and deafness.
- In the Antilles, used as vermifuge.
- Also used for menstrual cramps.
- Used for digestive problems and gastrointestinal spasms.
- Infusion of a peeled broiled clove used for gas pains.
- Juice of bulb with common salt applied to bruises and sprains; also used for neuralgia and earache.
- Rubbed over ringworm for soothing effect.
- In WWI, fresh raw juice was used as antiseptic for control of wound suppuration.

Studies


• Antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic: Topically, ajoene 0.4% cream, has been found 70% effective in certain dermatologic fungal infections. A 0.6% gel was effective in tinea corporis and tinea cruris.

• Anticandidal: Study on the mode of action of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) against Candida albicans showed garlic treatment affected the structure and integrity of the outer surface of the yeast cells. Growth was affected in a number of ways: decreased total lipid content, higher phosphatidylserines and lower phosphatidylcholines, and decrease oxygen consumption of AGE-treated C. albicans. AGE exerts its effect by oxidation of thiol groups causing enzyme inactivation and subsequent microbial growth inhibition.

• Hypertension: Studies suggest a beneficial antihypertensive effect but blood-lowering effects probably not dramatic. Other studies show a vascular benefit through improvement of aortic elasticity and possible slowing of the rate of atherosclerosis progression.

• Hyperlipidemia / Antioxidant: (1) Controversial, but probably has beneficial effect on serum cholesterol and LDL levels. Some studies have shown a 4% to 12% lowering of total cholesterol. It seems to have no effect on high density lipoprotein (HDL). (2) Study of feeding of fresh garlic bulbs to induced-hypercholesterolemic rats showed decrease in total and LDL cholesterol and increase in HDL levels.(3) Study concluded that garlic extracts may have a beneficial effect on blood lipid profile and antioxidant status.
• Anti-cancer / Chemoprotective: (1) Possible anticarcinogenic properties, specifically colon, stomach and prostate cancers. In stomach cancers, probably through its inhibitory effect on H. pylori. In epidemiologic studies on stomach and colorectal cancer prevention, the garlic use was 3.5 grams to 30 grams of fresh or cooked garlic per week. (2) Study showed garlic may have an adjuvant effect on various defense mechanisms against DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in sub-maxillary salivary glands of rat through increased availability or utilization of beta-carotene.

• Hepatoprotective / Hematologic Effects: Study results on female Wistar rats suggest garlic and vitamin C have some hepatoprotective and hematological effects.

• Antidiabetic: Study results of ethanolic extracts of AS in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats suggest that A. sativum can be considered an excellent candidate for future studies on diabetes mellitus.

• Sperm Immobilization Activity : Study of crude extract of A. sativum bulb showed spermicidal activity in vitro.

• Hepatopulmonary Syndrome Treatment: A trial showed garlic may improve oxygenation and symptoms in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome.

• Anti-Thrombotic Activity : Study of extracts of Allium sativum and Vernonia amygdalina showed both extracts offered protection against thrombosis produced by an intravenous injection of ADP and adrenalin, with A sativum showing the stronger activity.

• Diallyl Sulfide / Anti-Cancer: Study showed diallyl sulfide, a thioether found naturally in garlic, when given by gavage to mice, inhibited by 74% the incidence of colorectal adenocarcinoma induced by 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine.

• Cardiovascular Benefits: Garlic is an ideal herb with its several cardiovascular benefits: blood pressure lowering, antihyperlipidemic effects, platelet inhibition and fibrinolytic effects, antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic effects

• Antibacterial / Anti-Staph aureus: Study of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum showed concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

• Antitumorigenesis: Study showed garlic oil may have an adjuvant effect on host defense mechanisms against DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in sub-maxillary glands of rat through increased availability and utilization of beta-carotene.

• Antimicrobial / Crude Juices: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of crude juices of Allium ascalonicum, Allium cepa, and Allium sativum. Results showed strong antibiotic properties, and the complete absence of development of resistance from juices of Allium species merit consideration.

• Antioxidant: In a study using DPPH scavenging method, raw garlic extract showed a color change from deep violet to yellow, indicating antioxidant activity.

• Essential Oil / Antibacterial / Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Essential oil extract from Allium sativum bulbs showed inhibitory activity on growth of over 50% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains tested.

• Antibacterial / Garlic and Ginger Comparative Study: In a study comparing the antimicrobial potency of various extracts of garlic and ginger, results showed all the bacterial strains to be most susceptible to garlic aqueous extract while showing poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract.

• Chemoprevention: Experimental studies provide compelling evidence that garlic and its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of tumor growth.
• Anti-Ulcer: Study showed the protective role of raw Nigelia sativa, garlic, and onion against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and gastric acid secretion. Raw or boiled Nigella sativa, garlic or onion significantly inhibited histamine stimulated acid secretion. Raw Nigella sativa and garlic showed a decrease in ulcer index. Boiling reduced the potency of garlic and onion.

Precautions
• Anticoagulant Use: Reports have suggested that garlic may decrease platelet aggregation and have antifibrinolytic activity; therefore, should be used with caution in patients on anticoagulant therapy.
• Induction of Cytochrome P450-34A: Concern for patients on cyclosporine and protease inhibitors. May increase the effects of hypoglycemic drugs.

Availability
Wildcrafted.
Perennial market produce.
Commercial: Tablets, extracts, capsules, powder and tea.


Surce:
stuartxchange


Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Herbal Therapeutics: R.W. Watkins, MD, Emergency Medicine, April 2002

(2)Garlic (Allium sativum L.) / MayoClinic.com

(3)Hepatoprotective and some haematological effects of Allium sativum and vitamin C in lead-exposed Wistar rats / International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences Vol. 1 (3), pp.064-067, March 2009

(4)  Antidiabetic effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Phytomedicine. 2006 Nov;13(9-10):624-9.

(5) Antiglycation properties of aged garlic extract: possible role in prevention of diabetic complications. / Ahmad MS, Ahmed N / J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):796S-799S

(6)The Effect of Fresh Crushed Garlic Bulbs (Allium sativum) on Plasma Lipids in Hypercholesterolemic Rats / Research Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 3: 15-19, 2008

(7)Hypocholesteremic and Antioxidant Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extract in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diet / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (2): 161-166, 2009 / ISSN 1680-5194

(8)Sperm immobilization activity of Allium sativum L. and other plant extracts / Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 131-135

(9)Treatment of Hepatopulmonary Syndrome With Allium Sativum L. (Garlic): A Pilot Trial / Abrams Gary MD and Michael Fallon MD / Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology: October 1998 - Volume 27 - Issue 3 - pp 232-235 Clinical Research

(10)THE EFFECT OF GARLIC OIL (Allium Sativum) ON DMBA INDUCEDSALIVARY GLAND TUMORIGENESIS IN RAT / M M Ziu et al / Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences 7:3, 189-192, 1994

(11)Effects of Allium sativum and Vernonia amygdalina on thrombosis in mice / S O Awe et al / Phytotherapy Research • Volume 12 Issue 1, Pages 57 - 58 • Published Online: 18 Dec 1998 / DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(19980201)12:1<57::AID-PTR176>3.0.CO;2-M

(12)Diallyl sulfide, a flavor component of garlic (Allium sativum), inhibits dimethyihydrazine-induced colon cancer / Michael J Wargovich / Carcinogenesis (1987) 8 (3): 487-489. / doi: 10.1093/carcin/8.3.487

(13)Studies on the Anticandidal Mode of Action of Allium sativum (Garlic) / Mahmoud Ghannoum / Journal of General Microbiology 134 (1988), 2917-2924 ; DOI 10.1099/00221287-134-11-2917

(14)Cardiovascular Effects of Allium Sativum (Garlic): An Evidence-Based Review / Fataneh-Sadat Bathaei, MD, Shahin Akhondzadeh, PhD / J Teh Univ Heart Ctr 1 (2008) 5-10

(15)Antibacterial effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on Staphyloccus aureus: An in vitro study / Deresse Daka / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10 (4), pp. 666-669, 24 January, 2011

(16)THE EFFECT OF GARLIC OIL (Allium Sativum) ON DMBA INDUCED SALIVARY GLAND TUMORIGENESIS IN RAT / M M Ziu, A S M Giasuddin, A R Mohammad / Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences 7:3, 189-192, 1994

(17)Antimicrobial activity of crude juices of Allium ascalonicum, Allium cepa and Allium sativum./ Dankert J, Tromp TF, de Vries H, Klasen HJ. / Zentralbl Bakteriol Orig A. 1979 Oct;245(1-2):229-39.

(18)Antioxidant properties of raw garlic (Allium sativum) extract / Rahman, M. M., Fazlic, V. and Saad, N. W. / International Food Research Journal 19(2): 589-591 (2012)

(19)ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY EVALUATION OF ALLIUM SATIVUM ESSENTIAL OIL COMPARED TO
DIFFERENT PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA STRAINS IN EASTERN ALGERIA
/ Sihem Khadri, Nafissa Boutefnouchet*, Mazzouz Dekhil / St. Cerc. St. CICBIA 2010 11 (4)

(20)ROLE OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) IN VARIOUS DISEASES: AN OVERVIEW / Londhe V.P.*, Gavasane A.T., Nipate S.S., Bandawane D.D., Chaudhari P.D. / Journal of Pharmaceutical Research And Opinion 1: 4 (2011) 129 – 134.

(21)Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria / Iram Gull*, Mariam Saeed, Halima Shaukat, Shahbaz M Aslam, Zahoor Q Samra and Amin M Athar / Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2012, 11:8 / doi:10.1186/1476-0711-11-8

(22)Extract of Garlic (Allium sativum) in Cancer Chemoprevention / S Ejaz, L C Woong, A. Ejaz / http://www.ann-clinmicrob.com/content/11/1/8

(23)Comparative effect of garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and black seed (Nigella sativa) on gastric acid secretion and gastric ulcer / Amir N, Al Dhaheri A, Al Jaberi N, Al Marzouqi F, Bastaki SMA/
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RRMC.S23032

(24)Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans / Katey M. Lemar, Ourania Passa, Miguel A. Aon, Sonia Cortassa, Carsten T. Müller, Sue Plummer, Brian O'Rourke and David Lloyd / doi: 10.1099/mic.0.28095-0 / Microbiology October 2005 vol. 151 no. 10