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Other scientific names    

Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.     
Benincasa cerifera Savi       
Curcubita hispida Thunb.     
Curcubita pepo-aspera Blanco       
Dong gua (Chin.)     

Common names


Kandol (Bis.)
Kondol (Iv., Tag.)
Kundal (Sul.)
Rodal (Bik.)
Tabugok (Sub.)
Tambulok (Tagb/)
Tibiayon (Bis.)
Petha (India)
White gourd melon (Engl.)
Tung-kua P'i (Chin.)
Ash gourd (Engl.)
Wax gourd (Engl.)
Other vernacular names

CHINESE: Bai dong gua, yin dong gua
DANISH: Voksagurk
DUTCH: Waskalebas
FRENCH: Courge à la cire, Courge cireuse, Pastèque de Chine.
GERMAN: Wachskürbis, Prügelkürbis.
HINDI: Petha
INDONESIA: Kundur
ITALIAN: Zucca della cera
JAPANESE: Tougan
NEPALESE: Kubiindo, Pethaa
THAI: Faeng, Fak, Mafak khom, Mafak mon, Mafak mon khom.
TURKISH: Mom kagai.
VIETNAMESE: Bi dao, bi bee.
Botany

Kondol is a rather coarse, wide-spreading, softly hairy, annual vine with branched tendrils reaching a length of 4 to 8 meters. Leaves are rounded or kidney-shaped, 10 to 25 centimeters diameter, 5- to 7-lobed, heart-shaped at the base. Peduncles are hairy, those of the males being 5 to 15 centimeters long and of the females much shorter. Flowers are large and yellow, with a densely hairy bell-shaped calyx tube. Petals are 5 and spreading, 3 to 5 centimeters long. Fruit is ellipsoid or ovoid, 25 to 40 centimeters long, with few to many fragile hairs, green, and densely covered with a white and waxy bloom. The seeds are many, oblong, and compressed.

Distribution


- Cultivated for the edible fruit.
- Occasionally wild.
- Introduced to the Philippines.
- Also occurs in India to Japan, Malaya and Polynesia in general cultivation.

Constituents


- Amino acids, mucins, mineral salts, vitamins B and C, fixed oil, 44%; starch, 32%; an alkaline, cucurbitine; an acid resin; the proteids, myosin and vitellin; and sugar, 4%.
- Phytochemical studies indicate two triterpenes, alunsenol and mutiflorenol, with mast cell stabilizing effects in rats.
- Major constituents of the fruit are triterpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, saccharides, carotenes, vitamins, ß-sitosterin, and uronic acid.

Properties


• Considered astringent, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, demulcent, diuretic, febrifuge, styptic, tonic.
• Seed is anthelmintic, antiinflammatory.
• Fruit is nutritive, tonic, diuretic, alterative, and styptic.

Parts utilized


Whole fruit with seeds and skin.
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Uses

Nutritional

• Edible: Flowers, fruit, leaves, seed.
• Unripe fruit is boiled and eaten as vegetable.
• Ripe fruit is peeled and candied; used in pickles, curries and preserves.
• The fried seeds eaten as a delicacy.
• Young leaves and flower buds steamed and consumed as vegetable.
• Pulp is a source of vitamins B and C.

Folkloric

• In the Philippines fresh fruit is made into a syrup and used for disorders of the respiratory tract.
• Fresh fruit also used for hemoptysis and other hemorrhages of the internal organs.
• Fresh juice used as vehicle for administering pearl-ash for first-stage phthisis. Also used, with or without liquorice, for insanity, epilepsy, and other nervous disorders.
• Used as antidote for various vegetable poisons, mercurial and alcoholic poisoning.
• Juice of cortical portion used with powdered saffron and red rice bran for diabetes.
• Preserve used for piles and dyspepsia as anti bilious food.
• Seeds applied to simple skin eruptions.
• Seeds, deprived of the outer covering, used as vermifuge against tapeworm and lumbrici. Also, used as diuretic.
• Seeds, incinerated, taken internally for gonorrhea.
• Fruit rind is diuretic; ashes applied to painful wounds.
• In Indo-China, leaves and seeds used as purgative.
• Decoction of seed used for vaginal discharges and coughs.
• Fresh juice used as antidote for vegetable poisons.
• In China, popular for its dermatologic and cosmetic applications - for facial blemishes; moisturizing and skin softening use; anti-wrinkle and anti-aging skin properties; preventing sun damage.
• In Japan, kondol is a component of most traditional dermatologic formulations because of its skin regenerative.
• Tincture or liniments made through percolation with propylene glycol or hydro-alcoholic solution.
• In Korea, used for diabetes and kidney problems
• In Ayurveda, used for coughs, epilepsy, asthma, peptic ulcers. It is also the main ingredient in "Kusumanda Lehyam", used as tonic and for various conditions like epilepsy, constipation, hemorrhoids, dyspepsia, syphilis and diabetes.
• In India, used for treatment of peptic ulcer: Juice is squeezed out of grated gourd, equal amounts of water is added, taken daily on an empty stomach, with no food intake for 2 to 3 hours.
• Fruit juice used for insanity, epilepsy.

Studies


• Anti-Ulcer: Extracts of Benincasa hispida prevent development of experimental ulcers: Used in Ayurveda for peptic ulcers, the study showed extracts of BH may be a natural drug with anti-ulcer activity.

Anti-angiogenic Effect: Study showed the seed extract of Bh decreased bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. It showed no cytotoxicity and showed potent inhibitory effect on bFGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo. Seed extract of BH supports its anti-angiogenic property through inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation.
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Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer / Antioxidant: (1) Study results were comparable with the omeprazole treated group. Study suggest BH possess significant antiulcer and well as antioxidant property. (2) Study showed decrease in ulcer index in animals treated with fruit extract of Bh. BH has been shown to contain active principles – terpenes, flavonoid C, glycosides and sterols which have antioxidant effects, probably helping inhibit gastric mucosal damage by scavenging free radicals and repressing production of superoxide dismutase.

Bronchodilator Effect: The ME of BH showed excellent protection against histamine-induced bronchospasm probably through an antihistamine activity (H1 receptor-antagonism).

Opioid Withdrawal Benefit: Study showed the juice of Bh showed significant activity against symptoms of morphine withdrawal. Results suggest a potential for Bh in preventing the development of morphine addiction and suppression of opioid withdrawal in animals.

Antinociceptive / Antipyretic: Study results indicate that the ethanolic extract of Benincasa hispida possesses potent antinociceptive and antipyretic effects and pharmacologically justifies its folkloric use for fever and pain conditions.

Antidiarrheal: Study showed the methanolic extract of fruit of Bh showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil-induced diarrhea and inhibited PGE2 induced enteric pooling in rats. Results establish its efficacy as an antidiarrheal agent.

Antioxidant / Alzheimer's disease: Results revealed chronic treatment of Bh pulp extract markedly decreased lipid peroxidation level, significantly increased superoxide dismutase, CAT and reduced glutathione level in different parts of the brain. Study showed the antioxidant property of Bh may be beneficial in the management of colchicene-induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

Anorectic / Potential Anti-Obesity Benefit : Study investigated the anorectic effect of the methanol extract of Bh in Swiss albino mice. Results reveal, for a the first time, a possible anorectic activity of Bh, probably through CNS mediation, with no effect on gastric emptying. Further studies are suggested for its antiobesity potential.

Diabetes : Study investigated the hypoglycemic effects of Bh in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed a possibility of therapeutic or preventive use of wax gourd in diabetes mellitus.

Renoprotective: Study results showed Benincasa cerifera treatment prevented renal damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury in hyperlipidemic rats through decreasing of lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant enzyme activities.

Antifungal: Study of a methanol extract of fruit showed no inhibition on bacterial strains tested but showed significant inhibition against Candida albicans.

Anti-Inflammatory: Study of a methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of fruit of Bh produced dose-dependent and significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema, histamine induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in a rat model.

Anti-Urolithiatic: Study evaluated the ameliorating effect of an ethanol extract of seeds in hyperoxaluria and renal cell injury. Results showed an anti-urolithiatic effect with reduction in stone forming constituents in the urine and decreased kidney retention that reduced the solubility product of crystallizing salts.

Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the protective role of an aqueous extract of pulps on diclofenac sodium-induced hepatotoxicity model in adult albino rats. Results showed restoration of biochemical changes produce by diclofenac to normal. The significant hepatoprotective effect was through the modulation of antioxidant-mediated mechanism.

Anthelmintic: Study of anthelmintic activity using Pheretima posthuma as test worm showed an extract of fresh leaves with significant activity compared with standard Piperazine citrate group.
Bioactive Proteins / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated three bioactive proteins from the fruits, seeds and roots. The highest was 0.54% from the root which on cytotoxicity testing showed inhibition of proliferation of HeLa cell and K-562 cells.

Availability

Cultivated for edible fruit.
Occasionally, wild.


Source: stuartxchange



Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1)Benincasa hispida / Wax Gourd / Plants For A Future

(2)Extracts of Benincasa hispida prevent development of experimental ulcers / J K Grover et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 78, Issues 2-3, December 2001, Pages 159-164 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00334-8

(3)Anti-angiogenic effect of the seed extract of Benincasa hispida Cogniaux: / Lee Keyong-Ho et al / Journal of ethnopharmacology • 2005, vol. 97, no3, pp. 509-513

(4)Gastroprotective effect of Benincasa hispida fruit extract / Manish A Rachchh, Sunita M Jain / RESEARCH ARTICLE, 2008 | Volume : 40 | Issue : 6 | Page : 271-275

(5)  EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BENINCASA HISPIDA AGAINST HISTAMINE AND ACETYLCHOLINE INDUCED BRONCHOSPASM IN GUINEA PIGS / D Anil Kumar and P Ramu / Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2002; 34: 365-366

(6)Preliminary study of fresh juice of Benincasa hispida on morphine addiction in mice / J K Grover et al / Fitoterapia • Vol 71, Issue 6, December 2000, Pages 707-709 / doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00227-6

(7)ANTINOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-PYRETIC ACTIVITY OF BENINCASA HISPIDA (THUNB.) COGN. IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS / ZULFKAR LATIEF QADRIE et al / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.22, No.3, July 2009, pp.287-290

(8)Antidiarrheal Evaluation of Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. Fruit Extracts / VRUSHABENDRA SWAMY BHYRAPUR MATHAD et al / IRANIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, 4:24-27, 2005

(9)EFFECT OF EXTRACT OF BENINCASA HISPIDA ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN RATS WITH INDOMETHACIN INDUCED GASTRIC ULCERS / Beena Shetty et al / I1n7d8ianS hJe ttPyh y seito l aPlharmacol 2008; 52 (2) : 178–182

(10)The antioxidative role of Benincasa hispida on colchicine induced experimental rat model of Alzheimer’s disease / Chandan Roy et al / Biogenic Amines Vol 21 Issue 1-2, 2007

(11)Possible anorectic effect of methanol extract of Benincasa hispida (Thunb). Cogn, fruit / Kumar A, Vimalavathini R / Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 36, No. 6, November-December, 2004, pp. 348-350

(12)Effects of Benincasa hispida Intake on Blood Glucose and Lipid Level in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats / Lim S J. Jeong J G et al / Korean J Nutr. 2003 May;36(4):335-343.

(13)Benincasa cerifera Ameliorates Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Hyperlipidemic Rat / Y S Bhalodia, N J Patel et al / (Pharmacognosy Research) RESEARCH ARTICLE, 2009 | Volume : 1 | Issue : 6 | Page : 406-409

(14)Benincasa hispida / Catalogue of Life, China

(15)Sorting Benincasa names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE

(16)Ash Gourd -- Medicinal Properties and Benefits / Home Remedies Guide

(17)ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES ON METHANOL EXTRACT OF BENINCASA HISPIDA COGN., FRUIT / D. Natarajan, R.J. Lavarasan, S. Chandra babu, M.A.C. Sahib Thambi Refai, and L.H.Thameemul Ansari / Anc Sci Life. 2003 Jan-Mar; 22(3): 98–100.

(18)ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF BENINCASA HISPIDA FRUIT / MA RACHCHH , PN YADAV, RH GOKANI AND SM JAIN / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, Vol 2, No 3, July-Sept 2011

(19)Anti-Urolithiatic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Benincasa Hispida (Thumb) / Patel RK, Patel SB, Shah JG / Pharmacologyonline 3: 586-591 (2011) Patel et al.

(20)THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF BENINCASA HISPIDA ON DICLOFENAC SODIUM INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RAT MODEL / Dr. Shyamal K. Das, Dr. Chandan Roy / IJPRD, 2011; Vol 3(11): January-2012 (171 - 179)

(21)In-vitro Anthelmintic Activity of B. hispida Leaves / CHIRANJIB BHATTACHARJEE, DEBJIT B, PANKAJ TIWARI, K.K. TRIPATHI AND A.S.DUTTA / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences V1(2 )/ 2010

(22)Bioactive Proteins from Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn / CHURIYAH, LATIFAH KOSIM DARUSMAN / HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, December 2009, p 161-164