Amomum zingiber Linn.
Zingiber blancoi Hassk.
Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Zingiber sichuanense Z. Y. Zhu et al.
Agat (Pamp., Pang.)
Laya (Ilk., Bon., Ibn., It.)
Common ginger (Engl.)
Lao jiang (Chin.)
ARABIC: Skînzhbîr (Morocco), Zanjabil.
BENGALI: Aadaa (plant), Adrak.
BOSNIAN: Crni ingver, Đumbir, Gingibar, Isiot, Isnot, Mrki ingver, Pravi ingver, Vruća trava, Zinđefil.
CHINESE: Qiang jiang, Zi jiang.
CROATIAN: Cencer, Crni ingver, Đumber, Gingibar, Ingver, Isjet, Mrki ingver, Pravi ingver, Zenzer.
CZECH: Dumbír, Zázvor, Zázvor kořen.
ESTONIAN: Harilik ingwer.
FRENCH: Gingembre, Gingembre commun, Gingembre officinal, Gingembre traditionnel.
GERMAN: Inbwer, Ingwer.
GREEK: Tzintzer, Piperoriza, Ziggiveris.
HINDI: Adarak, Sonth.
ITALIAN: Zenzero, Zenzevero, Pepe zenzero.
JAPANESE: Jinjaa, Shouga.
KHMER: Khnehey, Khnhei phlung .
KOREAN: Saeng gang.
MALAY: Halia, Haliya, Haliya merah, Kunyit terus, Aliah, Jae, Jahe, Jahya, Lahya..
MALAYALAM: Inchi, Chuku.
NEPALESE: Aduvaa, Sutho.
PORTUGUESE: Gengibre, Ingever.
PUNJABI: Adrak, Sund.
RUSSIAN: Imbir', Imbir' lekarstvennyi.
SPANISH: Anchoas, Jengibre.
SWEDISH: Ingefära, Ingefoera.
THAI: Khing, Khing daeng, Khing klaeng, Khing phueak, Sa e.
TURKISH: Zentzephil, Zencefil, Zencebil.
VIETNAMESE: Cây gùng, Gừng, Sinh khương.
Luya is an erect, smooth plant arising from thickened, very aromatic rootstocks. Leafy stems are 0.4 to 1 meter high. Leaves are distichous, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 15 to 25 centimeters long, and 2 centimeters wide or less. Scape arising from the rootstocks is erect, 15 to 25 centimeters high, and covered with distant, imbricate bracts. Spike is ovoid to ellipsoid, about 5 centimeters long. Bracts are ovate, cuspidate, about 2.5 centimeters long, and pale green. Calyx is 1 centimeter long or somewhat less. Corolla is greenish yellow, and its tube is less than 2 centimeters long, while the lip is oblong-obovate and slightly purplish.
- Widely cultivated in the Philippines.
- Nowhere naturalized.
- Native of tropical Asia.
- Now pantropic.
• Pungent principles, mainly zingerone and shogaol, provides the characteristic taste.
• The most biologically active phenolic compounds, gingerols and shogaols, are found in the root.
• Volatile oil, 1.23 to 3% - gingerol, zingerone, zingiberene, cineol, borneol, phellandrene, citral, zingiberene, linalool, geraniol, chavicol, vanillyl alcohol, camphene; resin.
• Extracts and active constituents have shown potent antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antimutagenic, antimicrobial and possible anticancer activities.
• Considered adaptogenic, anodyne, anthelmintic, antiallergenic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, antifungal, antithrombotic, antitumore, antiulcer, aphrodisiac, carminative, diuretic, rubefacient, anti-platelet aggregation, hypolipidemic, thermoregulatory.
• Pungency is attributed to the pungent principle, zingerone and shogaol, while the aroma is imparted by the volatile oil.
• Considered stomachic, carminative, stimulant, diaphoretic, sialagogue, and digestive.
Tops, leaves and edible roots.
- One of the most popular flavoring agents.
- Used as flavoring for confectioneries, ginger ale, ginger beer, ginger champagnes, and other beverages.
- Tahu or salabat, a native beverage, is prepared from the rhizomes.
- A prominent condiment in Filipino cuisine.
- Taken with rock salt before meals is cleansing to the tongue and throat and increases the appetite.
- In Malaya fresh ginger is an important ingredient in curry.
- In the Philippines, pounded rhizome, alone or mixed with oil, used as revulsive and antirheumatic.
- As antiseptic, tincture of dried rhizome prepared with 70% alcohol (not rubbing alcohol) and applied on superficial cuts and wounds; or, juice from fresh rhizome used similarly.
- As digestive aid and for flatulence and tympanism, decoction of the rhizome drunk as tea.
- Ginger juice rubbed on and around the navel is said to cure all kinds of diarrhea.
- For rheumatism, roasted rhizome is pounded and mixed with oil and applied locally.
- For sore throat and hoarseness, warm decoction of the rhizome is drunk as ginger tea (salabat); piece of small rhizome chewed for the same.
- Rhizome used as cough remedy, rubefacient, carminative and diuretic.
- Also used for hangovers.
- For chronic rheumatism, ginger infusion ( 2 drams in 6 ounces of boiling water and strained) is taken at bedtime
- Poulticed of pounded and warmed leaves applied to bruises.
- Ginger taken with rock salt before meals is said to clean the tongue and throat and increase the appetite.
- Chewing ginger is said to diminish biliousness and delirium, relieve sore throat, hoarseness and aphonia, and increases the flow of saliva.
- Dried ginger used as corrective adjunct to purgatives to prevent nausea and intestinal pain.
- Juice from fresh ginger in gradually increasing doses is a strong diuretic in cases of general dropsy.
- For headaches: Ginger plaster (bruised ginger in water to the consistency of poultice) is applied to the forehead. Same preparation may be helpful for toothaches and facial pain.
- Hot infusion used for stoppage of menses due to cold.
- In Indo-China, cataplasm used for furuncles; when mixed with oil is antirheumatic. Rhizomes also used for tuberculosis, general fatigue and uterine affections.
- In Perak, rhizomes used as vermifuge.
- In the Antilles powdered rhizome used as revulsive for pleuritis.
- In Ayurvedic medicine, used for inflammation and rheumatism.
- In India, used as carminative adjunct along with black pepper and long pepper.
- In Chinese folk medicine, pulverized fresh ginger used for baldness and vitiligo. Juice from fresh root used for treatment of burns.
• Motion Sickness / Pregnancy-related Nausea: Antiemetic properties. Used for Nausea, motion sickness (1 gm taken 1/2 hour before the voyage). Stimulates digestion. Possibly antiinflammatory.
Ginger tea preparation, the Chinese way : Bring one cup of water to boil. Add one teaspoon of the roasted (parched and browned) rice and a small piece of ginger root. Boil for one minute. Let stand to cool for drinking. (Preparation of dried rice: Pour enough water to cover 1/2 cup white rice in a flat dish; and let stand overnight. In the morning, drain off the excess water. Roast the rice in a dry pan, stirring constantly until parched and brown. Store in a glass jar for future use, tightly covered to keep moisture out.)
• Wash and peel the ginger, then mince.
• Spread and air-dry for a day or oven-dry at 250 C.
• Grind and strain the dried ginger.
* In a mortar, mix 1 cup ground ginger and 1 cup confectioner's sugar.
• Pound and mix while gradually adding water until a pulp is formed.
• Level the pulp on a board lined with wax paper.
• Using a mold, make balls from the pulp and wrap each lozenge in aluminum foil.
How to make medicated candies from powdered rhizomes
Materials, proportion and procedure:
Go to Traditional and Modern Medicine
• Prokinetic: Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders: Study confirmed prokinetic activity of the extract. Spasmolytic constituents may explain its use in hyperactive states as in colic and diarrhea.
• Antidiarrheal: Study results indicate that in the absence of antimicrobial action, Z officinale exhibits its antidiarrheal activity by affecting bacterial and host cell metabolism.
• Antibacterial: (1) Antibacterial Activity Of Allium cepa (Onions) And Zingiber officinale (Ginger) On Staphylococcus aureus And Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated From High Vaginal Swab: The study showed both plants had antibacterial activity on the test organisms, ginger having more inhibitory effect, and confirming their folkloric use. (2) In a study on the comparative effect of ginger and some antibiotics on two pathogenic bacteria, results showed the ginger extract of both plant and root showed the highest antibacterial activity against S. aureus and Strep pyogenes while three antibiotics showed less extent of activity compared to the ginger extract.
• Anti-inflammatory / Anti-thrombotic: The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent: Study suggests ginger can be used as a cholesterol-lowering, anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent.
• Antioxidant / Anticancer: Study showed Zingiber officinale may exert its anticancer effect by replacing the action of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in removing superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide causing oxidative damage to cells.
• Antibacterial (Garlic/Ginger) Synergism: Study investigated the therapeutic effects of ginger and garlic against Klebsiella pneumonia, whether the combined extract could be synergistic or antagonistic in rats. Study showed a synergistic relationship, garlic ameliorating the efficacy of ginger only against Klebsiella infection.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Arthritis / Prostaglandin Inhibition: Study suggests one of the mechanisms by which ginger shows ameliorative effects could be through inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotrine biosynthesis - as a dual inhibitor of eicosanoid biosynthesis.
• Gastroprotective: Study results suggest cytoprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects with significant protection against ethanol-, HCl-, NaOH-induced gastric lesions and prevention of the occurrence of gastric ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hypothermic restrain stress.
• Decreased Sperm Motility: Study results conclude that ginger can induce toxic effects on sperm parameters, ie, a lower percentage of motility and grading when methanolic ginger is added to semen fluid.
• Hepatoprotective: Study of the ethanol extract of Z officinale showed protective effect against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity with better protective effect at higher dose levels.
• Anti-Aging: Study in mice showed ginger extract significantly reduced the development of atherosclerotic lesions and lowered LDL-cholesterol.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of rhizome extract in Swiss mice showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties with significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and reduction of writhing induced by acetic acid.
• Pregnancy-Related Nausea: Reasonable evidence suggests that ginger roots is effective in reducing pregnancy-related nausea. However, there is conflicting data on its efficacy for preventing motion sickness or post-operative nausea.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antibacterial / Hypoglycemic / Analgesic: Study of ethanol extract showed (1) reduction of carrageenan-induced paw swelling and yeast-induced fever (2) blood glucose lowering (3) inhibition of gram- and gram+ bacteria (4) dose-dependent prostaglandin release inhibition.
• Analgesic: Study demonstrated the daily consumption of raw and heat-treated ginger resulted in moderate to large reduction in muscle pain following exercise-induced muscle injury. The findings agree with findings of ginger's hypoalgesic effects in osteoarthritic patients.
• Antiarthritic: Study of the alcoholic extract of ZO can ameliorate inflammatory processes in rat collagen-induced arthritis, together with reduction of serum levels of interleukins, TNF, and anti-CII antibodies. It also showed to be superior to indomethacin 2 mg/kg/d at most measured parameters. The extract presents an alternative to NSAID use in RA.
• Hypoalgesic Effect on Exercise-Induced Muscle Pain: Study on healthy volunteers showed daily consumption of raw and heat-treated ginger resulted in moderate to large reductions in muscle pain following exercise-induced muscle injury. (18)
• Anticancer / Anti-Inflammatory: Ginger extract significantly reduced the expression of NFkB and TNF-a in rats with liver cancer. It may act as an anticancer and anti-inflammatory by inactivating NFkB through suppression of proinflammatory TNF-a.
• Delayed Diabetic Cataract Progression: Results showed ginger was effective against the development of diabetic cataracts in rats, mainly through its antiglycating potentiation, and also, through an inhibition of the polyol pathway. As such, dietary sources, such as ginger, can be explored for its potential in preventing or delaying diabetic complications. (23)
• Neuroprotective / Memory Benefits: Study showed cognitive function and neurons density in rat hippocampus receiving ginger rhizome extract were improved white the brain infarct volume decreased. The effect may be through antioxidant activity of the extract. Results demonstrate the beneficial effect of ginger rhizome in protecting against focal cerebral ischemia. (24)
• Anti-Ulcerogenic Effect: Study in a model of acute colitis showed ginger hydroalcoholic extract was effective in protecting against experimental colitis.
• Antidiabetic / Amylase and Glucosidase Enzyme Inhibitory Effect: Studies have targeted digestive enzymes as targets for modulation of glucose concentration through inhibition of enzymatic breakdown of complex carbohydrates. In this study, glucosidase and amylase activities on rice were inhibited by the addition of ginger with consequent significant reduction in glucose percentages. Results were comparable to Acarbose on glucosidase activity. (26)
• Antimicrobial / Anticancer: Study has showed many diarylheptanoids and gingerol-related compounds from the rhizome of ZO possess significant antiproliferation activity on HL-60 cells, probably through induction of cell apoptosis. Another study has shown ginger extract and 6-gingerol to both directly interfere with colon cancer proliferation. Results show ginger's phytochemical potential for chemoprevention and therapy. In this study, the ethanol and chloroform extracts were found to possess antibacterial properties against 8 microorganisms.(27)
• Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of raw ginger for hypoglycemic potential of ginger in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Raw ginger was significant effective in lowering serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol levels. Results indicate hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic potential. Raw ginger was also effective in reversing diabetic proteinuria in diabetic rats. (30)
• Cytotoxicity / Toxicity / Anticancer Activity / Cholangiocarcinoma: Study evaluated a crude ethanolic extract of ginger against CCA in mice. Results from in vitro and in vivo studies showed promising anticancer activity with an absence of any significant toxicity. However, MDR1 and MRP3 may be involved in CCA resistance to the ginger extract.(31)
• Cognitive Enhancer / Middle-Aged Women: Study evaluated the effect of ginger extract on cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Ginger-treated groups have significant decrease in P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, with enhanced working memory. Results suggest ginger to be a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. (32)
• Anti-Liver Fibrosis: Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanolic one, showed potential benefits for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Evaluation was done using antioxidant parameters, liver markers and liver function enzymes, and cholestatic markers. (33)
• Cardiovascular Toxic Effects: Study evaluated the acute and subacute cardiovascular toxicity of ginger in adult male albino rats. In high doses (500mg/kg) for 28 days, ginger produced both hypotension and bradycardia with degenerative changes in cardiac myocyte fibers. The effects may be partially due to vasodilatation with increased nitric oxide release or synthesis and partly from a calcium channel blocking effect, and perhaps, a cholinomimetic effect.(34)
• Ginger Benefits in Acute Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea: In a double-blind, multicenter trial using placebo and various doses of ginger, results showed all doses of ginger significantly reduced acute nausea compared to placebo. Results suggest ginger supplementation at a daily dose of 0.5 g to 1.0 g significantly helps in reducing the severity of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea. (35)
• Ginger Essential Oil for Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting: A 5% solution of essential oil of ginger in grape seed carrier oil, applied naso-cutaneously, can be administered safely for prevention and management of nausea in general anesthesia patients at high risk for post-operative nausea and vomiting.(36)
• No known side effects or drug interactions.
• The German Commission E recommends that it be avoided during pregnancy due to possible inhibition of testosterone binding in the fetus.
• The use in pregnancy for hyperemesis gravidarum is controversial. Use for nausea during pregnancy is not recommended. • Should not be used by pregnant women with a history of bleeding disorders and miscarriages.
Decreases platelet adhesiveness; therefore, should be used with caution by patients on anticoagulant therapy.
Popular condiment and perennial market produce.
Candied ginger and lozenges.
Dried powdered gingeroot.
Tinctures, tablets, capsules, syrups and teas in the cybermarket.
(1) Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders
(2)Antibacterial Activity Of Allium cepa (Onions) And Zingiber officinale (Ginger) On Staphylococcus aureus And Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated From High Vaginal Swab
(3)The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent
(4)Bioactive compounds from Punica granatum, Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale and their therapeutic potential
(5) Ginger tea preparation (Healing the Filipino Body and Spirit by Marie Castillo Pruden. Filipinas Magazine)
(6) Ginger lozenges (Herbs and Spices. Ernesta Quintana. Negosiyete Plus, July 1993)
(7)Effects of Zingiber officinale on Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Catalase, Glutathione and Malondialdehyde Content in HepG2 Cell Line / Harliansyah Abdul Hanif et al / Malaysian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 11 (5). pp. 36-41
(8)Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) on rats infected with Kleibsiella pneumoniae / Adeoti Olatunde Micheal M.Sc.et al / The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2009 Volume 7 Number 1
(9)Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rheumatism and musculoskeletal disorders / K Srivastava and T Mustafa / Medical Hypotheses, Volume 39, Issue 4, Pages 342-348
(10)Antidiarrhoeal activity of Zingiber officinale / Poonam G Daswani et al / CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 98, NO. 2, 25 JANUARY 2010
(11)Gastroprotective Activity of Ginger ZingiberOfficinale Rose, in Albino Rats / M A Ai-Yahya et al / American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Vol. XVII, Nos 1-2, pp. 51-56, 1988
(12)The Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Human Sperm Parameters; An in vitro Study / S G A Jorsarael et al / Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 11: 1723-1727. / DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2008.1723.1727
(13)Protective Effect of the Ethanol Extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats / Norina Abdullah et al / Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia 2(2) 2004: 85-95
(14)Ginger (Zingiber officinale) / WorldHealth.net
(15)ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC PROPERTIES OF THE RHIZOME EXTRACT OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE / Rajiy Udoh U S et al / Afr. J. Biomed. Res. Vol. 5 (2002) ; 121 – 124
(16)Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
(17)Ethnopharmacologic investigation of ginger (Zingiber officinale) / N Mascilo, R Jain et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 27, Issues 1-2, November 1989, Pages 129-140 / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(89)90085-8 |
(18)Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Reduces Muscle Pain Caused by Eccentric Exercise / Christopher D Black et al / doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2009.12.013
(19)Evaluation of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes in Rat Collagen-induced Arthritis / AM Fouda and M Y Berika / Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol (2009)
(20)Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Reduces Muscle Pain Caused by Eccentric Exercise / Christopher Black, Matthew Herring et al / The Journal of Pain, Volume 11, Issue 9 , Pages 894-903, September 2010
(21)Comparative studies of antibacterial effect of some antibiotics and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on two
pathogenic bacteria / A Sebiomo, A D Awofodu, A O Awosanya et al / Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials Vol. 3(1), pp. 18-22, January 2011
(22)Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale) has Anti-Cancer and Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Ethionine-Induced Hepatoma Rats / Shafina Hanin Mohd Habib, Suzana Makpoi et al / Clinics. 2008 December; 63(6): 807–813. / doi: 10.1590/S1807-59322008000600017.
(23)Antiglycating potential of Zingiber officinalis and delay of diabetic cataract in rats / Megha Saraswat, Palla Suryanarayana, Paduru Yadagiri Reddy et al / Molecular Vision 2010; 16:1525-1537
(24)Zingiber officinale Mitigates Brain Damage and Improves Memory Impairment in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rat / Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Jinatta Jittiwat, Terdhai Tongun et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 429505 / doi:10.1155/2011/429505
(25)Anti-ulcerogenic effect of ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) hydroalcoholic extract on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats / M. Minaiyan, A Ghannadi et al / Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, October 2008; 3(2): 15-22
(26)Amylase and glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) an in vitro study / Abeysekara W K, Chandrasekara A, Liyanage P K / Tropical agricultural research, Vol 19, 2007
(27)Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Zingiber officinalis Extracts / Fabad J / Pharm Sci, 33, 77-86, 2008
(28Zingiber officinale Roscoe (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(29)Sorting Zingiber names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(30)Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. / Al-Amin ZM, Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Peltonen-Shalaby R, Ali M. / Br J Nutr. 2006 Oct;96(4):660-6.
(31)A Study on Cytotoxicity, Toxicity and Anticancer Activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Against Cholangiocarcinoma / Tullayakorn Plengsuriyakarn , Vithoon Viyanant , Veerachai Eursitthichai , Smarn Tesana , Wanna Chaijaroenkul , Arunporn Itharat and Kesara Na-Bangchang / Research Journal of Pharmacology, 2012 , Vol 6, No 3, Pp 35-47 / DOI: 10.3923/rjpharm.2012.35.47
(32)Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women / Naritsara Saenghong, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Supaporn Muchimapura, Terdthai Tongun, Nawanant Piyavhatkul, Chuleratana Banchonglikitkul, and Tanwarat Kajsongkram / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012 / doi:10.1155/2012/383062
(33)Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis / Tarek K Motawi, Manal A Hamed*, Manal H Shabana, Reem M Hashem and Asmaa F Aboul Naser / Nutrition & Metabolism 2011, 8:40 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-40
A STUDY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR TOXIC EFFECTS OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE (GINGER) IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS AND ITS POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF ACTION / Iman A. Elkhishin and Ibrahim A. Awwad* / Mansoura J. Forensic Med. Clin. Toxicol. Vol. XVII, No. 2, July 2009
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces acute chemotherapy-induced nausea: a URCC CCOP study of 576 patients / Ryan JL, Heckler CE, Roscoe JA, Dakhil SR, Kirshner J, Flynn PJ, Hickok JT, Morrow GR. / Support Care Cancer. 2012 Jul;20(7):1479-89. doi: 10.1007/s00520-011-1236-3. Epub 2011 Aug 5.
The essential oil of ginger, Zingiber officinale, and anaesthesia / James L. Geiger* / The International Journal of Aromatherapy (2005) 15, 7–14 / doi:10.1016/j.ijat.2004.12.002